MASON CHEM 211 - CHAPTER 4 Chemical Reactions (22 pages)

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CHAPTER 4 Chemical Reactions



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CHAPTER 4 Chemical Reactions

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Pages:
22
School:
George Mason University
Course:
Chem 211 - General Chemistry I

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CHAPTER 4 Chemical Reactions John A Schreifels Chemistry 211 notes 1 Overview Ions in Aqueous Solution Ion theory in solutions precipitation reactions Molecular and ionic equation Typical Reactions Precipitation Acid Base Oxidation Reduction Balancing Working with solutions Quantitative analysis John A Schreifels Chemistry 211 notes 2 Ionic Thory of Solutions Pure water is a very poor conductor of electricity Solutions from dissolving NaCl or KCl in water are very conductive Solutions from dissolving substances such as sugar sucrose C12H22O11 are non conductive Electrolyte substance that produces ions when dissolved in water Strong good electrical conductor when dissolved in water completely ionized E g NaCl KNO3 Mg NO3 2 etc H O NaCl s 2 Na aq Cl aq Weak poor conductor when dissolved in water partial ionization NH3 aq H 2 O l NH 4 aq OH Non electrolyte substance that does not produce ions when dissolved in water John A Schreifels Chemistry 211 notes 3 Aqueous Reactions and Net Ionic Equations Three forms for writing chemical reaction Molecular AgNO3 aq NaCl aq AgCl s NaNO3 aq Ionic Spectator ions are not directly involved in the reaction aq Na aq Cl aq Na aq NO aq AgCl s Ag aq NO 3 3 Net ionic exclude spectator ions Ag aq Cl aq AgCl s John A Schreifels Chemistry 211 notes 4 Precipitation Reactions Metathesis reaction reaction in which two substances react through exchange of their components Driving force is often a precipitation AX BY AY BX E g Predict if precipitation occurs for the mixture AgNO3 aq KI aq NaClO4 aq Pb NO3 2 aq Na2SO4 aq BaCl2 aq Ni NO3 2 aq NH4 2S aq Hint Use the solubility rules to determine if either product is insoluble John A Schreifels Chemistry 211 notes 5 Solubility Rules Rule Exception Soluble Group 1 elements NH4 NO3 ClO3 ClO4 Chlorides bromides iodides Ag Pb2 Hg22 Acetates Ag Hg22 Sulfates Sr2 Ba2 Pb2 Ca2 Insoluble Compounds Carbonates phosphates oxalates chromates sulfides Group 1 NH4 Hydroxides oxides Group 1 Ba2 John A Schreifels



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