MESA POSC 101 - Danziger III (53 pages)

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Danziger III



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Danziger III

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Pages:
53
School:
San Diego Mesa College
Course:
Posc 101 - Intro. to Political Science
Intro. to Political Science Documents
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Danziger Chapters 9 12 Presented by Angela Oberbauer 2011 Danziger Chapter 9 Politics as a Value Allocation Process Public Policy is any decision or action by a governmental authority that results in the allocation of a value Danziger p 232 Policy Process Problem Identification Problem Definition Specification of alternative responses Policy selection and enactment Policy implementation Policy Evaluation Policy continuation modification termnation The Elite Approach Key Concepts 1 Politics is defined as the struggle for power 2 The Political World is characterized by Political Stratification The Italian Application of the Elite Approach Mosca et al The Ruling Class 1896 1939 All Political systems have two strata a The Political Class the elite controls all political functions holds virtually all political power and dominates the allocation of values Primary base of Elite domination military power then religious control then economic power and most recently technical knowledge b The nonpolitical class the mass Danziger p 239 The American Application of the Elite Approach C Wright Mills et al 1956 a The Power Elite in American Society are 1 The warlords in the military establishment 2 The corporation chieftains in the economic sector 3 The political directorate at the top positions in the political system Danziger p 239 Ruling Elite Understructure government The Mass The Value Allocation policy Process 1 2 3 The active elites are subject to little direct influence from the mass or even from the understructure of government The understructure follows the elite s instructions because its members depend wholly on the elite s power and resources for having and keeping their positions and for any authority the understructure maintains in the eyes of the Mass The mass is politically apathetic and impotent and policy is imposed upon them The Class Approach Concepts within the Class Approach 1 Stratification the basic fact of structured inequality 2 Class a The ruling class or capitalist class Karl Marx 1818 1883 b The proletariat class or non ruling class 3 Class Conflict inevitable rebellions by the suppressed class even possible revolution because of continued disparities between classes and the allocation of values The Group Approach Key Concepts 1 2 3 4 5 A group is made up of members with shared or common interests All group members may belong to multiple groups Individuals are not stratified The groups or individual s resources may be used to influence the political system Politics can be understood as the interaction or competition among groups to have access to government and achieve their political interests through beneficial policymaking Functions of Government in the Group Approach To establish the rules of the game for the group struggle To determine the interests of competing groups and the levels of political resources the competing groups have to offer and can be utilized To find a public policy that balances the positions of all active groups To enact public policy that balances these positions To implement the resulting value allocations Danziger Chapter 10 Change and Political Development Characteristics of More Developed Social Systems must include 1 The organizational dimension 2 The technological dimension 3 The attitudinal dimension The Process of Development economic social and political Stage Development traditional and modern mechanical and organic folk and urban less developed and more developed Marx society s particular stage of development depends upon which individuals share control jointly over any available productive resources in other words history or logic reveals a single inevitable sequence of stages Response to Key Challenges as part of the process of development Macro level structural dynamics and how they occur 1 2 3 4 The tension between traditional ideas and values and modern ones The transition from a rural agrarian society to an urban industrial society The transfer of social and political power from traditional elites to modernizing ones The fit among geographical territory national identities and state boundaries Barrington Moore 1966 in Danziger Processes of Development continued Micro level dynamics or individual level change Danziger in other words the attitudinal dimension this perspective emphasizes the social psychological factors of the individual that might account for variations in rates and patterns of development Inkeles and Smith 1999 Inkeles et al 1985 conducted studies in six countries Argentina Bangladesh Chile India the Oriental Jews of Israel and Nigeria and concluded there is remarkable similarity in beliefs among modern men in all six societies relevant to 1 openness to new experiences regarding both people and behaviors 2 A shift in allegiance from traditional authority structures 3 Confidence in modern technologies 4 Belief in the value of planning and punctuality 5 Desire for social mobility for oneself and one s children 6 Interest in local politics and community affairs 7 Interest in news especially national and international affairs Processes of Development continued A Civil Society When individuals create new patterns and attitudes of interaction at the group or societal level by having in Danziger a Tolerance of differences in opinions and behaviors b Willingness to cooperate with others c Inclination to negotiate in order to achieve a consensus and desire to avoid using violence to resolve differences d A sense of shared identity with others Analysts conclude the prevalence of these values of civility is crucial for sustaining effective community and democracy Diamond et al 1997 Stepan and Linz 1996 Putnam 1993 Processes of Development continued Culture and the process of Change Max Weber s study 1958a implies linkage between the culture of Protestant religions and the rise of capitalist political economies Weber suggested Protestantism motivated people to make substantial even irrational sacrifices of material consumption and the pleasure of life To work extra ordinarily hard and accumulate wealth rather than spend it Weber suggested in India and China the absence of development was an affect of the linkage between culture and religion Danziger pp 266 267 However development has grown in Asia since the 1980s and recent explanations emphasize how Asian culture has facilitated development Davis 1987 Huntington 1987 21 28 1991 Pye 1985 in Danziger p 267 The Dynamics of Economic Development Competing Styles of


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