Cal Poly Pomona PHL 402 - Metaphysics (6 pages)

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Metaphysics



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Back to PHl402 Table of Content Metaphysics I Conceptualization of Metaphysics Original meaning From the Greek meta to physika After the things of nature The phrase ta meta ta physika bibli The book after the books on nature was not used by Aristotle himself A Developed definition For Aristotle The first philosophy or theology Superscience The nature of being as being For later classical and medieval philosophers Moving from perception For modern philosophers The study of transcending nature For Kant A priori speculation A science of transcendence with self contradiction For Hume Anything abstruse and highly theoretical For Wolf A science by analysis from the logical principle of identity or contradiction A complete definition The study of the nature of ultimate reality and the dynamic principle natural supernatural or other by which reality exists B Roles of metaphysics 1 To interpret harmonize and rationalize experience 2 To correct and relate different sciences C Division of metaphysics General part Ontology general corporeal or spiritual being Special parts Rational cosmology the world rational psychology soul rational theology God D General question What is the fundamental nature of man and surrounding universe Metaphysics of the microcosm the nature of the human person Metaphysics of the macrocosm the nature of the human person s total environment E Six Schools 1 2 3 4 5 6 The teleologists The materialists The dualists The idealists The organicists The skeptics II History of Metaphysics A The Ancient Metaphysics 1 Pre Socratics 1 The Milesian School Thales Nature as water Anaximander Nature as endless combinations and contrasts of color taste Anaximenes Nature as air Common notions of this school Natural monism Everlasting cosmic substance Boundless expanse Nature as the source of the present and other world systems The transformation 2 Pythagoras All things as numbers 3 Heraclitus Nature as fire 4 Ionian Cosmologists Origin of physical universe 5 Parmenides the beginning of metaphysics Three characteristics Distinction with sciences A philosophical account of universe The logical consequences of saying it is Logical monism 2 Later Pre Socratics 1 Zeno Paradoxes of motion 2 Anaxagoras logical pluralism Reality is many and changing 3 Atomism Nature is formed by atoms Empedocles Lencippus Democritus 3 Plato 1 Theory of ideas or forms a Idea existing independently of things b Mind or soul as a kind of entity c Mind or soul as the ultimate source of observed motions 2 General criterion of reality a Materialism and idealism 3 Four concepts of equal generality a Sameness difference rest and motion 4 Aristotle 1 The most fundamental questions a Concerned the concepts of being and unity 2 The center of metaphysics a An explicit analysis of sense of being 3 The source of all motions and changes a The ultimate prime mover 4 The basic subjects of discourse a The common sense things 5 The first substance a Objective individual things 6 Four causes Cause is reality cause can explain reality a Material cause b Formal cause c Efficient cause d Final cause 7 Two qualities a Potentiality and b Actuality 8 Four basic terminologies a Necessity b Nature c Chance Spontaneity or Fortune d Man 9 Teleological explanation of the world a All things must be determined towards and end 10 Four propositions on reality 11 Ten categories a Corresponding to existence or reality b Such as quality and quantity 5 Neo Platonism As a link between ancient and medieval philosophies B The Medieval Metaphysics 1 Augustinian tradition realism 1 St Anselm a Ontological proof of God s existence b Four key points 2 Revival of Aristotle s philosophy 1 St Thomas Aquinas a The distinctions between essence and existence b Necessary and contingent existence and c Particular and universals 2 Scotus a realist 3 William of Ockham a nominalist C The Modern Metaphysics 1 The humanistic period 1 The renaissance broke with scholasticism no longer as a slave of theology 2 From theologized philosophy to humanized philosophy 2 The natural science period 1 To establish metaphysics in a scientific foundation 2 New systems and new methods for philosophical investigation 3 Empiricism Bacon and Hobbes 4 Rationalism Descartes As the originator of modern philosophy a A firm superstructure To establish a firm superstructure in the science b Conception of philosophical method and truth By mathematical proposition and the postulate of geometry c Two criteria d Cogito ergo sum I think therefore I am e Three Substances The first God The second mind The third matter Spinoza For clarity and distinctness of metaphysics a Metaphysics as a deductive account of universe b Four arguments for the existence of God Leibniz For scientific metaphysics a Metaphysical truths being logically necessary b Four proofs for metaphysical assertions c Pluralistic metaphysical idealism d Monads as absolutely simple substances 2 The enlightenment period 1 Into the problem of extent and limits of human knowledge and power of understanding 2 Locke Opening a empirical way for the science a Critical discussion of substance and essence b Only knowing qualities of things not things in themselves c Rejection of innate ideas d Objective origin of ideas all knowledge comes from experience e Two qualities in the external world f Three complex ideas 3 Berkeley Idealistic empiricism a Phenomenalism b Mentalism to be is to be perceived 4 Hume a Rejection of all substance b habitual association of ideas c No evidence d No the existence of any self and spirit e Antimetaphysical challenge 4 The idealistic period 1 Kant a Critical idealism b Skepticism c Things in themselves 2 Hegel a Absolute idealism b Dialectic Metaphysics 5 The contemporary period 1 Pragmatism 2 Logical positivism 3 Ordinary language philosophy 4 Phenomenology 5 Existentialism 6 Philosophy of science


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