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Quantities of Arsenic Within the State of Florida Completed on June 30 2003 Helena Solo Gabriele Ph D P E Donna May Sakura Lemessy M S University of Miami Coral Gables FL Timothy Townsend Ph D P E Brajesh Dubey Jenna Jambeck M S University of Florida Gainesville FL State University System of Florida FLORIDA CENTER FOR SOLID AND HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT 2207 NW 13 Street Suite D Gainesville FL 32609 Report 03 06 i This page left intentionally blank ii TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF TABLES LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS UNITS OF MEASURE ABSTRACT iii iv iv vii ix xi CHAPTER I MOTIVATION OBJECTIVES DISCLAIMER AND U S ARSENIC SOURCES I 1 Motivation and Objectives 2 I 2 Disclaimer 2 I 3 Summary of Arsenic Sources in the U S 3 CHAPTER II SOURCES OF ARSENIC IN FLORIDA II 1 CCA Treated Wood 11 II 2 Arsenical Pesticides Not Including CCA 15 II 3 Geologic Sources 28 II 4 Other Fertilizers not from Phosphate Rock Mining 36 II 5 Fuels 38 II 6 Food Sources 40 II 7 Wastes Generated Within the State 44 II 8 Hydrosphere Rainfall Rivers and Soils 48 II 9 Other 54 CHAPTER III SUMMARY CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS III 1 Summary 58 III 2 Conclusions and Recommendations 64 III 3 Acknowledgments 66 REFERENCES 67 APPENDIX A SUPPLEMENTAL DATA AND DOCUMENTATION APPENDIX B LIST OF TECHNICAL ADVISORY GROUP MEMBERS AND MEETING ATTENDEES 77 135 iii LIST OF FIGURES Figure I 1 World and U S Production of Arsenic Figure I 2 Uses of Arsenic Within the USGS from Edelstein 1994 1995 1996 Reese 1997 to 2001 Loebenstein 1994 Figure II 1 Inputs Outputs Reservoirs and Control Volumes for the State of Florida Figure II 2 Agricultural Use of MSMA and DSMA During 1992 and 1997 Data from the National Center for Food and Agriculture Policy 2002 Figure II 3 Flow Chart of the Phosphate Fertilizer Production Process with Estimated Arsenic Concentrations Based Upon Mass Balance Considerations Figure III 1 Quantified Arsenic Input Fluxes for the State of Florida 2000 Figure III 2 Arsenic Concentrations ppm for Components Evaluated in this Study Figure A 1 Dimensions of Typical Dipping Vats provided by William Todd UF Agricultural and Biological Engineering Department personal communication 2002 Figure A 2 Dipping Vat 1925 Florida Library Photographic Collection provided by William Todd UF Agricultural and Biological Engineering Department personal communication 2002 LIST OF TABLES Table II 1 List of Keywords Used in NPIRS Database Search Table II 2 Number of Arsenical Pesticides Registered in Florida According to NPIRS Products Separated By Those Used for Wood Preservation and Those Not Used for Wood Preservation Table II 3 Sales Data for Non CCA Arsenical Pesticides Sold in Florida Table II 4 Application Rates of Arsenical Herbicides on Florida Golf Courses from Ma et al 2002 Table II 5 Number of Applications of Arsenical Herbicides per Year for Florida Golf Courses from Ma et al 2002 iv LIST OF TABLES con d Table II 6 Arsenic Concentration in Phosphate Data originally from FDACS See table A 10 in appendix A Table II 7 Fertilizers Containing Higher than 100 mg kg Arsenic Data Provided by FDACS Table III 1 Summary of Arsenic Inputs Outputs and Cycled Arsenic Sources in Florida Table III 2 Summary of Accessible and Geologic Reservoirs of Arsenic within Florida Table A 1 Arsenic Demand in the U S from Edelstein 1994 1995 1996 Reese 1997 to 2001 Loebenstein 1994 Table A 2 Summary of U S Industry Statistics for Waterborne Preservatives Data from AWPA and AWPI Statistical Reports Table A 3 Florida Registered Arsenical Pesticides from NPIR Database Search Conducted on April 29 2003 Table A 3a Florida Registered Arsenical Pesticides from NSPIRS Database Search That Were Not Identified on the NPIRS Database Search Conducted on April 29 2003 Table A 4 Acreage of Greens Tees Fairways and Roughs for Florida Golf Courses Provided by Mr Joel Jackson of the Florida Golf Course Superintendents Assoc Table A 5 Annual Production of Phosphoric Acid and Phosphogysum Personal communication Gary Albarelli FIPR 2002 Table A 6 Annual Quantities of Phosphate Rock Extracted Personal Communication Gary Albarelli FIPR 2002 Table A 7 Metals Concentrations in Various Media from Richard Tedder FDEP personal communication Table A 8 FDACS Miscellaneous Heavy Metal Survey June 1998 Personal communication William Cox of FDACS Table A 9 Detection Limits and Limits of Quantification for FDAC Miscellaneous Heavy Metal Survey June 1998 Personal communication William Cox of FDACS Table A 10 FDACS Miscellaneous Heavy Metal Survey Fiscal Year 97 98 Personal communication William Cox of FDACS v LIST OF TABLES con d Table A 11 Detection Limits and Limits of Quantification for FDACS Miscellaneous Heavy Metal Survey Fiscal Year 97 98 Personal communication William Cox of FDACS Table A 12 Florida s Fertilizer Use Summary for 12 Month Period Between July 2001 and June 2002 William Cox Personal Communication FDACS Table A 13 Estimates of Energy Consumption by Source for Florida 1960 1999 USDOE 1999 Table A 14 Estimates of US Fish and Shellfish Per Capita Consumption 1960 1997 USDA 1999 Table A 15 Arsenic Concentrations for Selected Shellfish USDA 1993 Table A 16 Average Biosolids Concentrations from 1992 to 2001 for Various Facilities in Florida Personal Communication Maurice Barker FDEP 2002 Table A 17 Arsenic Data for Florida s Waste to Energy Facilities Data provided by Deborah Galbraith of the FDEP Table A 18 Average Arsenic Concentrations in Wastewater From Pretreatment Reports submitted to FDEP by the WWTP Complied on 28th May 2002 Table A 19 Arsenic Concentrations in Florida s River Waters Table A 20 Discharge of Major Rivers that Flow Into the State of Florida Table A 21 Discharge of Major Rivers that Flow Out of the State of Florida Table A 22 Groundwater Arsenic Concentrations for Wells in Florida Table A 23 Statistical Summary of Median Arsenic Concentrations for U S States Focazio et al 1999 Table B 1 Technical Awareness Group Members 2001 2002 vi LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS As Arsenic AWPA American Wood Preservers Association AWPI American Wood Preservers Institute BDL Below Detection Limit BLOQ Below Limit of Quanitification CAMA Calcium Acid Methanearsonate CCA Chromated Copper Arsenate C D Construction and Demolition Cd Cadmium Cr Chromium Conc Concentration DAP Diammonium Phosphate DERM Dade County Department of Environmental Resources Management DOE U S Department of Energy DSMA Disodium Methylarsonate FAC


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