UVM GEOL 110 - Midterm Exam (2 pages)

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Midterm Exam



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Midterm Exam

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2
School:
The University of Vermont
Course:
Geol 110 - Earth Materials
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Earth Materials Midterm Exam Review Outline Spring 2006 Review session 8 30 pm Wednesday night room 219 lecture room bring specific questions problems ex Can you explain Pauling s rules is not a specific question How can I determine if a molecular subunit is anisodesmic mesodesmic or isodesmic All Materials may be found in either the notes or the material covered in the book and usually both The following is an outline of the material which you are expected to be responsible for on the mid term exam next week pertinent sections in text bracketed 1 General chemistry of Earth Materials Chapter 1 a Distribution of elements in the universe and on earth b Types of bonds an understanding in particular of ionic and covalent bonding in common minerals as well as other types of bonds 2 Pauling s Rules Chapter 13 a Should know first 2 inside and out radius ratio and electrostatic valency principle to determine coordination numbers bond strength b Know difference between isodesmic anisodesmic and mesodesmic subunits as well as describe how they are important in bonding and silica polymerization 3 Know the 7 ways in which silica tetrahedral polymerize forming the major divisions of silicate minerals Chapter 13 page 287 290 4 Mineral formulas Chapter 1 page 21 22 a Be able to read chemical formulas b use binary and ternary compositional diagrams c Be able to normalize a simple chemical formula 5 Know what a polymorph is be able to discuss why they form 6 Mineral Growth be able to discuss different ways minerals form and get bigger Chapter 2 7 Be able to discuss different kinds of defects dislocations imperfections like twinning zoning Chapter 2 8 Be able to discuss chemical fingerprints chemical makeup isotopes 9 Symmetry elements know the different operators and have some understanding that they combine to define point groups Chapter 9 10 Know the 6 major crystal systems very well Chapter 10 11 Know how crystal morphology form is related to a crystal s internal structure 12 Miller indices Chapter 11 page 242 247 13 Crystallography be able to define a lattice unit cell Chapter 10 a Know differences between the 14 Bravais lattices unit cell types primitive body face end centered b Know how space groups are defined symmetry point groups Bravais lattices translations 14 Light absorption you should have a good working knowledge of the electromagnetic spectrum and basic properties especially wave forms wave particle duality Chapter 4 a Color be well versed in different ways in which color is developed in minerals be able to bring together mineral chemistry structure with light interaction b Luster diaphaneity be able to define in terms of light interaction c You should have a general understanding of luminescence difference between fluorescence and phospholuminescence 15 Mineral physical properties have a working knowledge of hardness density magnetism know types and acid reaction how does all of it relate to mineral chemistry structure Chapter 3 16 interaction of electrons shot at a mineral know how electrons may interact and reflect as well as transmit through minerals and what some of the information this can provide using SEM TEM and related detectors 17 Spectroscopic methods use your understanding of the interaction of light with minerals to describe the different analytical methods to analyze minerals For instance if I was interested in how to distinguish different clays by investigating the prescence of OH groups what tool s could I use IR spectroscopy which looks at the vibration of the O H bond 18 X rays Be able to describe how X rays are generated and ways they interact with minerals Chapter 12 19 Interference you should understand constructive and destructive interference as applied to any form of electromagnetic radiation 20 Diffraction be able to describe diffraction relationship to spacing of atoms in planes defined through crystallography Chapter 12 21 Bragg s Law you should understand this very well be able to use it to generate an XRD pattern describe how it works with different sources of radiation and what kind of information we can get from X ray diffraction experiments utilizing Bragg s Law Chapter 12 22 Optical microscopy Chapter 4 better description in lab book a How polarizers work in a petrographic microscope b Be able to describe how color relief pleochroism develop in plane polarized light c Be able to describe light reorientation by minerals under cross polars d Recognize how internal order affects optical properties how are the 6 major crystal classes divided in terms of optical properties how can you use optical microscopy to tell between certain classes e Be able to describe basic principles of refraction ordinary vs extraordinary rays and how this relates to extinction and birefringence f Describe basics of conoscopic projections in microscopy Bertrand lense differences between isometric uniaxial biaxial minerals


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