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AN ASSESSMENT OF THE RISK MAPPING SYSTEM



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AN ASSESSMENT OF THE RISK MAPPING SYSTEM FOR THE USE OF MANAGING LOBLOLLY PINE DECLINE SITES WITHIN RED COCKADED WOODPECKER HABITAT A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science In The Department of Plant Pathology Crop Physiology By Roger Dale Menard Bachelor of General Studies Northwestern State University 1995 August 2007 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I gratefully acknowledge the invaluable input provided by my first advisor Dr John P Jones retired He gave me the chance and initial encouragement to begin my program I am indebted to Dr Gordon Holcomb for taking Dr Jones place for his guidance encouragement and sincere support in the final days I would like to thank Dr Marc A Cohn for the wise advice on matters of science and integrity I also would like to thank him for the many reality checks that made me aware of potential shortcomings in my research efforts To Dr Lori G Eckhardt a very special thanks for she guided me as a major professor mentored my work with excellence provided a sounding board for my thoughts and ideas and most of all focused my efforts where I needed them Also thanks for all the assistance provided to me on all the insect and root collection trips and having someone to talk with on the long trips to and from Georgia Again I would like to thank all the members of my advisory committee Drs Gordon Holcomb Lori G Eckhardt and Marc A Cohn for the professional performance of their committee responsibilities I would also like to thank other faculty members in the Department of Plant Pathology Crop Physiology who helped me in many aspects during my graduate program Thank you to all the lab workers Erica Gray Keisha Collins Tomas Rush Casey Guidry and Josh Danzey for your discussion and assistance for the many days of field work collecting samples and the long hours in the lab processing the samples Thanks to my fellow graduate students for their input I would also like to thank all my co workers at the US Forest Service Forest Health Protection in Pineville LA who made my participation in this project possible through their ii work efficiency A special thanks to Nolan Hess who was instrumental in my participation in this research project and who gave me the opportunity to work on my Masters degree Thanks to my supervisor Dr Forrest Oliveria for his facilitation of the necessary permissions needed for me to attend grad school and his supportive interest in the project I would also like to thank him for his assistance provided in collecting samples A special thanks to co technician Wood Johnson who had to spend many a hot day in the forests to collect samples I couldn t have managed without your enthusiastic and back breaking help I would like to thank the Fort Benning Land Management Branch for their funding for the research and for their cooperation in allowing this research to be carried out on lands in their custody Finally my sincerest thanks go to my wife Pearl for the unconditional support and continual encouragement throughout and for understanding my needs Thanks for all the loving sacrifice iii TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS iii LIST OF TABLES v LIST OF FIGURES vi ABSTRACT viii CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW 1 1 1 Forest Decline 1 1 2 Loblolly Pine Decline 2 1 3 Mapping Decline 3 1 4 Study Area 4 CHAPTER 2 MATERIALS AND METHODS 6 2 1 Map Creation 6 2 2 Plot Descriptions 8 2 3 Study Design 9 2 4 Root Sampling 11 2 5 Soil Sampling 14 2 6 Insect Activity 14 2 7 Plot Characterization 16 2 7 1 Plot Measurements 16 2 7 2 Crown Ratings 16 2 7 3 Resin Sampling Tree Vigor 17 2 7 4 Insect Damage 17 CHAPTER 3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 19 3 1 Results 19 3 1 1 LPDRM Assessment 19 3 1 1 1 Topology 19 3 1 1 2 Growth Variables 19 3 1 1 3 Crown Condition 20 3 1 1 4 Resin Analysis 23 3 1 1 5 Root Condition Isolations and Soil Isolations 23 3 1 1 6 Insect Variables 24 3 2 Discussion 26 CHAPTER 4 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 34 4 1 Summary 34 4 2 Conclusions 34 REFERENCES 38 APPENDIX A TREE STRESSORS 42 iv APPENDIX B MANAGEMENT OPTIONS 43 VITA 45 v LIST OF TABLES Table 2 1 Fort Benning loblolly pine decline plot symptom classes D decline symptomatic and H healthy asymptomatic and plot number identifications Global Positioning System locations and stand age categories 13 Table 3 1 Mean standard deviation radial growth mm in asymptomatic and symptomatic loblolly pine decline plots of three age categories 22 Table 3 2 Mean observed diameter at breast height and height by age and symptom category in loblolly pine decline plots for 2003 to 2005 P pooled data A asymptomatic S symptomatic 22 Table 3 3 Mean standard deviation crown condition percentage in asymptomatic and symptomatic plots of three age categories for loblolly pine decline study 23 Table 3 4 Mean standard deviation resin weight grams in asymptomatic and symptomatic plots of three age categories for loblolly pine decline study 23 Table3 5 Isolation of pathogenic fungi from roots soil and insects by plot D decline symptomatic and H healthy asymptomatic Neither P cinnamomi nor H annosum were isolated from any of these sites No insects trapped at these locations 25 Table 3 6 Condition comparison of primary and fine roots on asymptomatic and symptomatic loblolly pine decline plots 26 vi LIST OF FIGURES Figure 2 1 Digital Elevation Model DEM lower right used to convert decline parameters to the color reclassification scheme of the Loblolly Pine Decline Risk Map LPDRM center with preliminary plot locations 7 Figure 2 2 A Georgia county map showing the counties of Muscogee and Chattahoochee where Fort Benning Military Installation is located 10 Figure 2 3 Examples of loblolly pines exhibiting symptomatic Decline and asymptomatic Healthy conditions 12 Figure 2 4 Layout of pine decline study plots using Forest Health Monitoring protocols established in Dunn 1999 12 Figure 2 5 Pitfall trap viewed disassembled left and assembled right used to catch root feeding insects 16 Figure 2 6 Resin sampler disassembled left and assembled right with polyethylene terephthalate centrifuge tube 18 Figure 2 7 Insect feeding damage to a lateral root and the resin response caused by Hylastes salebrosus Eichoff Coleoptera Curculionidae 18 Figure 3 1 The percent predictive accuracy of the Loblolly Pine Decline Risk Map by symptom category 20 Figure 3 2 Effect of slope on Loblolly Pine Decline disease


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