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GoodGovernance-ThePartnershipForGovernanceReformsInIndonesia-Sept2002



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1 Good Governance in Indonesia Discussion Paper The Partnership for Governance Reforms in Indonesia A Midterm Monitoring Exercise September 2002 Amsterdam Martha Meijer T K Oey The Partnership for Governance Reform in Indonesia 3 Contents Glossary 4 Executive Summary 6 Conclusions 6 Recommendations to the Partnership 7 To the Dutch government 7 To the Indonesian stakeholders 7 Preface 9 1 2 Introduction 10 1 1 The aim of the project 10 1 2 Definitions of good governance 10 1 3 The stakeholders 13 1 4 A human rights impact assessment 14 The context 16 2 1 Indonesia since 1998 17 2 2 Dutch development aid to Indonesia 18 3 The Partnership for Governance Reform 21 4 Monitoring the Partnership s effects 23 4 1 The governmental monitoring 23 4 2 Non governmental views 25 4 3 Comments by sector 27 4 3 1 the judiciary system 27 4 3 2 economic reforms 29 4 3 3 reforms in the public administration 30 4 3 4 decentralisation and regional autonomy 30 4 3 5 anti corruption campaign 32 4 3 6 military reform 34 5 Conclusions and recommendations 35 5 1 Recommendations to the Partnership 36 5 2 To the Dutch government 36 5 3 To the Indonesian stakeholders 36 Annex 1 A Human Rights Approach to Good Governance 38 Annex 2 Additional policy objectives for consideration by Dutch policy makers 41 The Partnership for Governance Reform in Indonesia Glossary ADB AIV APEKSI Asian Development Bank Advisory Council on International Affairs Asosiasi Pemerintah Kota Seluruh Indonesia Association of City Governments of Indonesia APKASI Asosiasi Pemerintah Kabupaten Seluruh Indonesia Association of Regency Governments of Indonesia BAPPENAS Badan Perencanaan Nasional National Planning Board Bupati Regent district chief CGI Consultative Group on Indonesia DPR Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat House of Representatives DGIS Directoraat Generaal Internationale Samenwerking Directorate General International Cooperation under the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs Dwifungsi Official term for the double role of the army both as defence force and political force FNPBI Front Nasional Perjuangan Buruh Indonesia National Front of the Indonesian Labour Struggle FPPI Front Perjuangan Pemuda Indonesia Front of the Indonesian Youth Struggle HOM Humanistisch Overleg Mensenrechten Humanist Committee on Human Rights HPH Hak Penggunaan Hutan logging concession HRIA human rights impact assessment ICEL Indonesian Center for Environmental Law ICW Indonesian Corruption Watch INFID International NGO Forum on Indonesian Development INSIST Institute for Social Transformation IPGI Indonesian Partnership on Local Governance Initiatives Kabupaten Regency district KKN Indonesian acronym for Corruption Collusion and Nepotism KODEMO Committee for a Democratic Indonesia member of Indonesia House KONTRAS Commission for the Disappearances and Missing Persons KPU Komisi Pemilihan Umum Commission on General Elections MPR Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat People s Consultative Assembly ODA official development aid PAD Pendapatan Asli Daerah Original Regional Revenues PDI P Partai Demokrasi Indonesia Perjuangan the party of Megawati Sukarnoputri PSI Programme Cooperation Indonesia PSOM Programme Cooperation Emerging Markets PUSDEHAM Pusat Studi Demokrasi dan HAM Centre For Democracy Human Rights Studies REMDEC Resource Management and Development Consultants TNI Tentara Nasional Indonesia The Indonesian Army formerly known as ABRI Armed Forces of Indonesia UNDP United Nations Development Program WALHI Wahana Lingkungan Hidup Indonesia Indonesian Forum for Environment 4 The Partnership for Governance Reform in Indonesia YLBHI Yayasan Lembaga Bantuan Hukum Indonesia Legal Aid Foundation 5 The Partnership for Governance Reform in Indonesia 6 Executive Summary In March 2000 the Partnership for Governance Reforms in Indonesia hereafter referred to as the Partnership was established The program a cooperation initiative of the World Bank United Nations Development Program UNDP and the Asian Development Bank ADB did not elaborate specific objectives but instead used good governance as a container concept The Dutch government contributed substantially to the Partnership Now mid 2002 Indonesian and Dutch CSOs want to assess the effects of the Partnership Lacking clear indicators that are linked to specific objectives it is not possible at this stage to make a representative qualitative appraisal of its effectiveness The indicators are simply not there and the Partnership program is so diversified that also within specific sectors there is no clear picture that can be considered as representative of the total situation Still the signs from Indonesian society laid down in this paper are signals that should be heeded for the future of the Partnership The observations are important for the Dutch public and political decision makers as well because the priorities in Dutch development programmes with regard to Indonesia will be reconsidered in 2004 Conclusions As a general conclusion it has been argued that good governance projects are actually only valid in a free market economy and do not solve the problems of farmers and workers who are impaired by this economic system Per sector the following may serve as conclusions for this midterm monitoring exercise judicial reform Almost all activities of the Partnership are directed toward supporting existing state institutions without considering the importance of changing the structure and authority which lie at the root of the problems economic reform According to the Indonesian CSOs a rights based approach is lacking objectives should be included which address questions of equity equitable income distribution gender budgeting and the fundamental economic rights and opportunities necessary for obtaining a decent life public administration The Partnership has so far conducted only a few workshops in conjunction with the government for introducing the concept and principles of good governance there has been no talk of basic changes in the structure function and authority of the civil bureaucracy decentralisation Decentralisation is regarded as a fundamental step toward increased participation of the population in general But decentralisation at present is more often than not bound to fail not the least because of more than three decades of rigid authoritarian rule with any opportunity for participation No mechanisms have been developed yet for a check and balance system with adequate parliamentary control combating corruption The level


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