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Grad Stats Final Exam Fall 2000 Question I This problem is a reward to the one SLHS student who stuck with us A speech researcher is trying to find ways to help people whose speech has been impaired by injuries to either their vocal apparatus or to the brain areas responsible for speech She suspects that one reason people with such injuries have trouble being understood is that they don t talk loudly enough either because their injuries make it difficult to do so or because they are embarrassed by their acquired speech problems Before designing an intervention she conducts a study to examine the relationship between loudness and speech intelligibility among a group of patients with speech problems The following variables are available for each patient LOUD loudness in dB of the patient s typical speech INTEL intelligibility as rated on a 10 point scale by judges unaware of the purposes of the study AGE age in years of the patient For each substantive question below specify MODEL A MODEL C comparisons that could be used to answer the question 1 Are patients who speak louder easier to understand In this question and subsequent ones treat INTEL as the dependent variable 2 Age is known to affect loudness When controlling for age are patients who speak louder easier to understand 3 Is it more true for younger patients than older patients that patients who speak louder are easier to understand 4 Ignoring age for the moment and assuming there is a relationship been intelligibility and loudness can there be too much of a good thing That is do effects of loudness on intelligibility decrease with increasing loudness 5 Assuming that loudness is decreasingly effective is the optimal level intelligibility attained when loudness is 80 dB 6 Does the degree to which the effectiveness of loudness decreases at higher levels depend on the age of the patient Question II Although African Americans AA as a group are economically disadvantaged compared to Caucasian Americans as a group

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