ISU PSYCH 280 - Conformity (39 pages)

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Iowa State University
Psych 280 - Social Psychology
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Social Influence Conformity Social Influence Use of social power to change the attitudes or behavior of others in a particular direction Begin Slides for Exam 3 Conformity Conformity Change in behavior or belief as a result of real or imagined social influence cp Autokinetic Effect Study Autokinetic Effect Study Estimate how far point of light moved in dark room After many trials individual s estimates converged Repeated procedure in a group situation cp cp 1 The Johnny Rocco Case The Johnny Rocco Case Participants rated who they most wanted to leave the group Mode Deviate Slider Mode 4 47 Most common viewpoint Most deviant viewpoint Most deviant then most common viewpoint Slider 4 76 Not Significantly Different Deviate 6 11 Wanted Deviate to go the most cp cp Christmas Card Study Phil Kunz a psychologist at Brigham Young University in Provo Utah sent 578 Christmas cards signed Joyce and Phil to strangers living in Chicago Illinois Reciprocation 117 over 20 sent a card in return A significant number of return cards had notes or letters enclosed Only 6 of the 117 people who returned a card said they could not remember them cp 2 Reciprocation County Youth Study Cialdini et al 1975 Two step procedure Independent variable Request 1 Large request get No 2 Smaller request get Yes Experimental group Would you be willing to serve as unpaid counselors to juvenile delinquents 2 hrs wk for 2 years inflated request Works because 1st request makes 2nd request seem more moderate and acceptable No Ok would you be willing to serve as unpaid chaperons for juvenile delinquents on a day trip to the zoo concession By making a 2nd more moderate request the requester appears to have made a concession which makes other person feel obligated to make a reciprocal concession Control group Asked Would you be willing to serve as unpaid chaperons for juvenile delinquents on a day trip to the zoo cp Door in the Face Technique County Youth Study Factors that reduce its effectiveness 60 agreeing to go to zoo cp 50 Initial request too extreme 40 30 20 10 Request for selfish purposes 0 Control Group Experimental Group Delay between 1st and 2nd request cp cp 3 Cupcake Sale Cupcake Sale Burger 1986 3 Conditions who bought a cupcake 60 That s Not All Cost per cupcake 1 25 then reduced to 1 00 Bargain Cost per cupcake 1 00 had 50 40 30 20 10 0 been 1 25 That s Not All Bargain Control Control Cost per cupcake 1 00 cp cp Commitment and Consistency Commitment Consistency Once we make a commitment we feel pressure from ourselves and others to behave consistently with that commitment CP 4 Here s another example Beach Towel Study Researchers asked 1 2 of the residents in an apt complex to sign a petition to create a recreation center for the handicapped 100 2 weeks later all residents were approached and asked to donate money to the cause Percent who intervened 90 80 70 60 50 This reflects a two step process for the 1 2 of participants who signed the petition 40 30 20 10 0 Control Step 1 obtain commitment i e petition signature Step 2 get consistency in behavior i e donate Experimental CP CP American Cancer Society Study American Cancer Society Study Cialdini Schroeder 1976 I m collecting money for the American Cancer Society Would you be willing to help by giving a donation Experimental Group I m collecting money for the American Cancer Society Would you be willing to help by giving a donation Even a penny would help CP Percent who donated money Control Group 60 30 34 50 40 30 18 55 20 10 0 Control Experimental CP 5 Commitments grow their own legs People add reasons and justifications to support the commitments they have made This causes prior commitments to be selfperpetuating because people will stick to their prior commitments even when the original factor leading to compliance is gone Factors that Affect Commitment and Consistency Is the commitment voluntary or forced He that complies against his will is of his own opinion still Is the commitment made in public or private Did the commitment take effort or not Is the commitment made actively or passively CP CP Social Proof Craig Prkachin 1978 Social Proof 1 Administered shock to participant 2 Asked participant how painful shock was 3 Took physiological measures of pain Participants felt less shock on both pain indexes if they were in the presence of another participant who was apparently experiencing little or no pain CP 6 Factors that Influence Effectiveness of Social Proof Why Social Proof Gains Compliance Why does it work Uncertain about correct behavior People make fewer errors when they follow the crowd Certain about correct behavior Social Proof works better under conditions of uncertainty Following the crowd is easier takes less mental effort CP Factors that Influence Effectiveness of Social Proof Dissimilar CP Copycat Suicides Schmidtke Hafter 1988 Examined of suicides following broadcast of FICTIONAL TV show Similar TV show lasted 6 weeks Depicted 19 yr old male who committed suicide by leaping in front of a train Following the series railway suicides increased substantially Social Proof works better when others are similar to the self This increase was greatest for males who were same age as TV character Copy cat suicides called the Werther Effect CP CP 7 Fluctuations in U S suicides before during and after 26 publicized suicide stories Phillips 1974 1500 Number of 1000 suicides in comparison to to what would have normally 500 been expected Scarcity 0 500 1 0 1 2 3 Months CP Reactance and Toy Preference Strategies Derived from Scarcity Principle Brehm Weintraub 1977 Toddlers put in room with attractive toys 1 Limited Numbers Customer told that a particular product is in short supply One toy behind a Plexiglas sheet that was 1 foot high no barrier 2 feet high barrier 2 Time Limits Customer told that there is a deadline to the sale of a product Toddlers made contact with toy behind the barrier 3 times faster cp cp 8 Reactance and Teen Love Driscoll Davis Lipetz 1972 The more parents objected to their teens relationship the more in love the couples said they were and the more the couples wanted to get married The couples love increased as parental interference increased and decreased as parental interference decreased Factors that Influence Effectiveness of Scarcity 1 New scarcity People are more likely to want something that has just become scarce than something that has already been scarce for some time cp cp Cookie Study A Modification Cookie Study Worchel

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