UCF COP 2500C - Artificial Intelligence (11 pages)

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Artificial Intelligence



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Artificial Intelligence

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Pages:
11
School:
University of Central Florida
Course:
Cop 2500c - Concepts in Computer Science
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Artificial Intelligence Herbert Simon We call programs intelligent if they exhibit behaviors that would be regarded intelligent if they were exhibited by human beings Elaine Rich AI is the study of techniques for solving exponentially hard problems in polynomial time by exploiting knowledge about the problem domain Elaine Rich and Kevin Knight AI is the study of how to make computers do things at which at the moment people are better Avron Barr and Edward Feigenbaum Physicists ask what kind of place this universe is and seek to characterize its behavior systematically Biologists ask what it means for a physical system to be living We in AI wonder what kind of informationprocessing system can ask such questions Claudson Bornstein AI is the science of common sense Douglas Baker AI is the attempt to make computers do what people think computers cannot do Anonymous Artificial Intelligence is no match for natural stupidity from Eugene fink s home page http www csee usf edu eugene Artificial Intelligence Artificial Intelligence AI is the name given to encoding intelligent or humanistic behaviors in computer software Problem Nobody has created a widely accepted definition of intelligence At one time was considered a uniquely human quality Now generally accepted to be an animal quality Has been linked to tool use tool creation learning adaptation to novel situations capacity for abstraction Problem Nobody has created a widely accepted definition of artificial intelligence Cognitive models attempt to recreate the actual processes of the human brain Behavioral models attempt to produce behavior that is reasonable for a situation regardless of how the behavior was produced Tend to focus on reasoning behavior learning adaptation Artificial Intelligence Challenges Format of Knowledge data is not information Size of Knowledge How do you store it all Once stored how do you access only the pertinent items and skip over irrelevant items Humans are good at this though we don t know why Relationships between Pieces of Knowledge This is worse than the size of knowledge Given n items and m types of binary relationships there are m n2 possible relationships This is the simplest representation Is it better to explicitly represent relationships or derive them in real time as we need them Artificial Intelligence Challenges Ambiguity Knowledge ultimately represents natural phenomena that are inherently ambiguous How do we resolve this Acquiring Knowledge How does one combine new and old information Relationship to old knowledge Abstraction Negative learning can we detect false information or contradictions Can we quantify the reliability of the knowledge Truth nets attempt to do this Deriving Knowledge Abstracting Knowledge Given a set of information can I derive new information Reasoning systems and proof systems attempt to do this Can I group similar knowledge items into a more general single item Artificial Intelligence Challenges Adaptation How can I use what I know in new situations What constitutes a new situation Sensing Sensing is the ability to take in information from the world around you Virtually all computer systems Sense 1 s and 0 s through keyboard mouse and serial port Perception Perception is related to sensing in that the meaning of the thing sensed is discovered Auto example Emotional Intelligence I think therefore I am Renee Descartes about 1640 Descartes Error is a book by Antonio R Damasio 1995 in which he proposes that traditional rational thought without emotional content fails to create intelligent behavior Social Knowledge Ethics How do I behave with my teammates strangers friend foe What are my responsibilities towards others as well as myself Proposed AI Systems Rule Based Behavior designed behavior specifying sets of conditions and responses Finite State Machines Graphical representations of the state of systems with sensory inputs leading to transitions from state to state Scripts attempts to make behavior production tractable by anticipating behaviors that follow certain sequences The Restaraunt Script is a typical example we expect roughly the same behaviors be greeted be seated order drinks get drinks no matter what restaurant we are in Case based and Context Based Reasoning attempt to reduce search space of possible behaviors by only considering those associated with certain situations or contexts Proposed AI Systems Cognitive Models Attempts to model cognitive processes Cognitive Processes attempt to match human thinking by reproducing human thought processes Neural Nets attempt to match human thinking by reproducing brain synapse structures Proposed AI Systems Emergent Behavior Overall behavior resulting from the interaction of smaller rule sets or individual agents Overall behavior is not designed but desired Genetic Algorithms represents behavioral rules as long strings termed genomes Behavior is evolved as various genomes are tried and evaluated Higher rated genomes are allowed to survive and reproduce with other high ranking genomes Ant Logic Named after the behavior of ant colonies where individuals have very simple rule sets but complex group behavior emerges through interactions Synthetic Social Structures Models more complex animal social behaviors such as those found in herds and packs Allows efficient interaction without much communication Genetic Algorithms and Genetic Programming Genetic Algorithms represents behavioral rules as long strings termed genomes Behavior is evolved as various genomes are tried and evaluated Higher rated genomes are allowed to survive and reproduce with other high ranking genomes Ant Logic Example Traveling Salesman based on biological ant foraging techniques Goal find the minimum cost route to visit each city exactly once starting and ending at the start city Solution Allow many agents to wander leaving markers that weaken over time Build a path over time with the strongest markers a s b c d e f Emergent Example Boids Duplicates flocking schooling behavior of birds using simple rules No central control each individual makes independent decisions Rules Avoid collisions Match velocity vector of local group Move toward center of m ass of local group http www codepuppies com steve aqua


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