De Anza BIOL 10 - ch 5-7 Energy Lecture (12 pages)

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ch 5-7 Energy Lecture



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ch 5-7 Energy Lecture

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Pages:
12
School:
De Anza College
Course:
Biol 10 - Introductory Biology

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BIO10 ch 5 7 Energy Lecture 27 ENERGY Energy is the ability to do work Energy is considered to exist in two states kinetic energy the energy of motion potential energy stored energy All the work carried out by living organisms involves the transformation of potential energy to kinetic energy There are many forms of energy all energy can be converted to heat Heat energy is the most convenient form of energy to measure Thermodynamics the study of energy or heat changes Organisms continually have energy changes Laws of thermodynamics govern these energy changes 1st Law of Thermodynamics total amount of energy in universe remains constant energy can change from one state to another but it can never be created nor destroyed during the energy conversions some of the energy is lost as heat energy 2nd Law of Thermodynamics the amount of disorder or entropy in the universe is increasing the increasing disorder means that energy is spontaneously transforming from potential to heat energy Chemical Reactions the making or breaking of chemical bonds Reactants substrates the starting molecules of a reaction Products molecules at the end of the reaction For example H20 O2 H2O2 27 BIO10 ch 5 7 Energy Lecture 28 2 kinds of chemical reactions 1 Endergonic products w energy than reactants these reactions are not spontaneous 2 Exergonic products with less energy than reactants these reactions are spontaneous activation energy required to start a reaction stress existing chemical bonds Reactions become more spontaneous if their activation energy is lowered process called catalysis catalyzed reactions proceed much faster than non catalyzed reactions How Enzymes Work Enzymes are catalysts used by cells bind specifically to a molecule stress the bonds so the rxn more likely to proceed active site on surface of enzyme that binds to a reactant the site on the reactant where the enzyme binds is called the binding site Enzymes are reused Temperature and pH affect enzyme activity o optimum temp



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