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A New Species of Paris Melanthiaceae from Northeastern Yunnan China Zhang Shu dong Key Laboratory of Biodiversity and Biogeography Kunming Institute of Botany Chinese Academy of Sciences 132 Lanhei Road Kunming 650204 Yunnan People s Republic of China and Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing 100039 People s Republic of China sdchang mail kib ac cn Wang Hong Key Laboratory of Biodiversity and Biogeography Kunming Institute of Botany Chinese Academy of Sciences 132 Lanhei Road Kunming 650204 Yunnan People s Republic of China and School of Life Sciences Nanjing University Nanjing 210093 People s Republic of China wanghong mail kib ac cn Li De zhu Key Laboratory of Biodiversity and Biogeography Kunming Institute of Botany Chinese Academy of Sciences 132 Lanhei Road Kunming 650204 Yunnan People s Republic of China dzl mail kib ac cn ABSTRACT Paris stigmatosa Shu dong Zhang Melanthiaceae is described and illustrated from northeastern Yunnan China The new species was found growing in wet habitats under bamboo thickets on Yaoshan Mountain of Qiaojia County The new species is very similar to P polyphylla Smith from which it differs by having fewer subsessile leaves four to six 3 merous flowers and stigmas 21 34 mm long A key to the new species and sympatric species is given and their similarities are discussed Key words China IUCN Red List Melanthiaceae Paris Yunnan The genus Paris L Melanthiaceae Angiosperm Phylogeny Group II 2003 comprises more than 20 species of perennial herbs distributed in Eurasia Li 1986 Kato et al 1995 Liang Victor 2000 All species except the European species P quadrifolia L and the Caucasian species P incompleta M Bieberstein are endemic to eastern Asia Osaloo Kawano 1999 There are 22 species 12 endemic in China Liang Victor 2000 which is the center of species diversity and endemism for the genus The previous taxonomic circumscription of Paris has been problematic e g Tatewaki Suto 1935 Hara 1969 Takhtajan 1983 Li 1984 1986 1998 Mitchell 1987 1988 Li Noltie 1997 Hara 1969 divided the genus into three sections i e sections Paris Kinugasa Tatewaki Suto Hara and Euthyra Salisbury Franchet Takhtajan 1983 suggested that NOVON 18 550 554 PUBLISHED ON Paris comprised three distinct genera Paris s str Kinugasa Tatewaki Suto and Daiswa Rafinesque Li 1998 following Hara s 1969 treatment maintained Paris s l dividing into two subgenera subgenus Daiswa Rafinesque H Li and subgenus Paris In subgenus Daiswa five sections were included section Dunniana H Li section Euthyra Salisbury Franchet section Marmorata H Li section Fargesiana H Li and section Thibetica H Li in subgenus Paris three sections were included section Paris section Kinugasa Tatewaki Suto Hara and section Axiparis H Li Previous molecular data Osaloo Kawano 1999 Farmer Schilling 2002 supported Takhtajan s treatment in part however Ji et al 2006 recently used nuclear ITS and plastid psbA trnH and trnL trnF DNA sequence data on a set of 21 species of Paris and confirmed that Paris s l is monophyletic In this paper we follow Li s 1998 treatment because of her comprehensive study for global Paris species Thirteen species were placed in Paris subg Daiswa Li 1998 based on morphological characters such as thickened rhizomes 1 loculed ovaries with parietal placentation berry like irregularly dehisced capsules and seeds with a succulent aril There are 12 species of subgenus Daiswa in China with 10 species occurring in Yunnan Province Southwestern China including Yunnan clearly represents the center of diversity for Paris subgen Daiswa Gu Li 1988 Rising from the upper reaches of the Yangtze River 16 DECEMBER 2008 doi 10 3417 2007077 Volume 18 Number 4 2008 Zhang et al Paris Melanthiaceae from China Yaoshan Mountain lies along the border between northeastern Yunnan and southern Sichuan provinces During recent fieldwork on Yaoshan Mountain by the authors five taxa of Paris subgen Daiswa were collected Of these P stigmatosa is identified as a new species Specimens were collected on Yaoshan Mountain of northeastern Yunnan Province and voucher specimens were deposited at the herbaria of Kunming Institute of Botany KUN and Yunnan University YUKU Flowers were observed directly in the field and rehydrated before most measurements and sketches were made For the morphological descriptions all materials were studied with the aid of a light microscope Olympus TGHM Tokyo Japan Pollen grains of the new species were collected in the field and examined by LM and SEM by the authors because pollen exine sculptures play a key role in determining phylogenetic relationships among species of Paris see Wei 1988 Measurements were based on 20 pollen grains the values of P polar axis length and E equatorial diameter were measured and the P E ratio was calculated type locality on Yaoshan Mountain Two populations with approximately 50 mature individuals each were found under moist bamboo thickets at altitude 2500 2600 2900 m Paris stigmatosa Shu dong Zhang sp nov TYPE China Yunnan Qiaojia Co Yaoshan Mtn 2600 2900 m 7 July 2004 Hong Wang Qin Lin Shu dong Zhang Na na Lin 03 1372 holotype KUN isotypes MO PE YUKU Figure 1 A Paris polyphylla Smith foliis obovatis subsessilibus sepalis externis plerumque 3 atque stigmatibus 21 34 mm longis differt Plants perennial erect rhizome thickened to cylindrical simple to 4 cm stem green or purple glabrous 12 33 cm Leaves 4 to 6 petioles subsessile leaf blades obovate glabrous 4 9 3 2 3 5 cm acuminate cuneate Fertile peduncles 3 5 11 5 cm glabrous Outer tepals typically 3 sometimes 4 or 2 green ovate 2 4 6 3 0 6 1 cm glabrous acuminate cuneate shortly ciliate at margin inner tepals usually absent or 3 yellowgreen filiform erect equal to outer ones stamens usually 6 or 8 filaments purple 2 3 mm anthers 3 5 mm free portion of connective purple ca 0 2 mm acute ovary green subglobose 3 5 4 3 3 4 1 mm style ca 1 mm stigmatic lobes 2 3 or 4 purple 21 34 mm pollen prolate monocolpate rugulate reticulate 40 10 6 2 49 3 21 24 6 1 00 mm Fig 2 Capsule green at maturity globose 0 8 1 cm diam seeds enveloped by red succulent aril 4 5 3 ca 3 mm Distribution and habitat Paris stigmatosa is an endemic species and has only been collected at the 551 IUCN Red List category According to IUCN Red List criteria IUCN 2001 this species should be included in the category Critically Endangered CR Phenology Observed in flower May to July and in fruit in August Etymology The epithet of the new species refers to its

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