Sac State GEOG 100 - Global climate change (19 pages)

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Global climate change



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Global climate change

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Pages:
19
School:
California State University, Sacramento
Course:
Geog 100 - Themes In World Geography
Themes In World Geography Documents
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Class 14b Global climate change Basics of global warming Potential effects Politics of global warming Greenhouse effect Natural warming effect Keeps Earth habitable Greenhouse gases GHGs Let in short wavelengths Trap long wavelengths What is global warming Global worldwide not universal Global climate change more accurate Increase in average world temperature Many varied regional effects Climate research How do we know about past climates Temperature records Observations of seasons crops Pollen in lake sediments Tree rings Ice cores trapped air Is global warming happening 1990s warmest decade of millenium 7 warmest years on record Increase of 1 4 F in 20th century Temperate latitudes 5 increase in 35 years Is global warming unusual Fastest rate of warming in 1 000 years 1 C away from warmest in 125 000 years Highest CO2 in 420 000 years Yes it s been this warm before But that doesn t mean it s not serious What s causing global warming Sunspot cycles Not since 1980s Earth s changing orbit Recent changes don t fit End of an Ice Age Maybe a little What s causing global warming Carbon dioxide water vapor methane Naturally occurring but increase with human activity Rising CO2 since Industrial Revolution Product of fossil fuels 90 99 confidence IPCC How much more warming 2 5 10 F by 2100 5 4 F at current emission rates A 5 F drop led to the last ice age Climate systems are nonlinear Earth with a fever So what for the weather More climatic variability More and stronger storms Increase in extreme weather since 1970s 90 positive from global warming More rain in some places less in others So what for ecosystems Northward climate shift of 90 350 miles Fastest species migrate at 1 2 miles year Need 0 9 3 4 miles year Penguins and polar bears More dead plants more CO2 emissions Good for mosquitoes And diseases So what for the oceans Thermal expansion of warmer water Melting ice sheets glaciers Rise of 1 5 3 feet by 2100 Every foot up is 100 feet inland Increased salinity in groundwater So what for the oceans Arctic Ocean ice sheet down 40 in 30 years Could stop the Gulf Stream Coral reefs very sensitive to temperature Mass die offs worldwide since 1979 So what for cities More air pollution More deadly heat waves Mountain glaciers disappearing too Water supplies for millions in danger Sea level rise New York London Bangkok Rio etc So what for countries Some positive effects in North Greatest threats to poorest countries Most emissions from wealthy countries 40 countries in danger of annihilation Solutions to global warming Mitigation reduce effects Carbon taxes Emissions trading Energy efficiency alternative fuels Adaptation adapt to effects Seawalls irrigation etc No matter the cause but who pays Politics of global warming Fossil fuel producers little to nothing US Australia Saudi Arabia etc US has 4 of population 36 of CO2 emissions Europe has set binding targets Developing countries want to develop Small island states want to exist Politics of global warming Kyoto Protocol 1997 Ratified by Europe Russia not US Cuts of 7 from 1990 levels Est 50 70 cuts needed to stabilize CO2 Est cost 270 450 billion for U S About the same as mitigation


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