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Small Scale Bio Fuel Production Identifying the Major Issues Joel Schumacher M S Montana State University Small Scale Production Major Issues Seed Source Seed Processing Biodiesel Process Markets Government Involvement Seed Sources Questions to ask What is your current oilseed production If you expand your oilseed production how will this affect your crop rotations Seed Source Canola Canola Price and Production 70 000 12 00 60 000 10 00 50 000 8 00 40 000 6 00 30 000 4 00 20 000 10 000 2 00 0 0 00 1999 2000 2001 2002 Planted Acres Data obtained from NASS 2003 2004 2005 Price per Cwt 2006 Price Acres Seed Source Safflower 16 00 14 00 12 00 10 00 8 00 6 00 4 00 2 00 0 00 50 000 40 000 30 000 20 000 10 000 0 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Planted Acres Data obtained from NASS Price per Cwt Price Safflower Price and Production Acres Seed Source Flax 60 000 10 00 50 000 8 00 40 000 6 00 30 000 4 00 20 000 10 000 2 00 0 0 00 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Acres Data obtained from NASS Price per Bushel Price Acres Flax Price and Production Seed Source Mustard Mustard Price and Production 20 00 30 000 15 00 20 000 10 00 15 000 10 000 5 00 5 000 0 0 00 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Acres Data obtained from NASS Price per Cwt Price Acres 25 000 Seed Source Camelina Average Yield WestBred 2006 Trials 1 200 lbs acre Average Price 2006 Production Estimates 7 000 to 20 000 acres Limited Information about rotational effects Seed Source Potential for Purchasing Seed Average Montana Production 2002 2005 Canola Flax Safflower Mustard Camelina 11 517 Metric Tons 9 685 Metric Tons 13 055 Metric Tons 4 373 Metric Tons Essentially no production until 2005 Seed Source Contracted Production of Oilseeds A 2004 Survey of MGGA Members indicated the following percentages of specialty crops were sold under some type of contract 46 8 of Canola 73 2 of Mustard 97 5 of Safflower 11 6 of Flax Oilseed Processing 4 ton per day TPD press Oilseed Processing Questions to ask to determine the right equipment capacity How many tons of oilseed do you intend to process How much time are you willing to devote to oilseed processing Oilseed Processing Questions to ask when selecting equipment How many tons per hour or day can the equipment process What oil recovery rate s can be obtained with the equipment 65 80 oil recovery rate is common Is the equipment capable of pre heating the seed Oilseed Processing Seed Preparation All seed will need to be cleaned prior to processing Some seeds require additional preparation For Example Sunflowers require dehulling Equipment Manufacturers can provide information on seed preparation Oilseed Processing Required Equipment Mechanical Press Power source for the press Seed Bins Meal Bins Oil Tanks Pumps Filters Plumbing Oilseed Processing Installation Costs Do you need to upgrade your electrical system Equipment Shipping Costs Oilseed Processing Operating Costs Seed Costs Labor Costs Electricity Costs Maintenance Costs Oilseed Processing Sample Oilseed Press Prices 1 TPD press without power source 1 000 2 TPD press without power source 1 995 5 TPD press with electric motor 6 000 10 TPD press with electric motor 10 500 Oilseed Processing On Farm Example If you plant 100 acres of canola with an average yield of 1 100 lbs per acre your production is approximately 55 tons Oilseed Processing Processing Time How many 12 hour shifts will it take to process your production 5 ton per day press 22 shifts 2 ton per day press 55 shifts 1 ton per day press 110 shifts Oilseed Processing The 55 tons of seed will yield approximately 4 200 gallons of oil 36 metric tons of meal Assuming The seed has 38 oil content and press recovers 75 of the oil content in the seed Biodiesel Process Biodiesel Processor Biodiesel Process Basic Overview Inputs Oil Alcohol Catalyst Oil Input Virgin Recycled Alcohols Methanol Ethanol Catalysts Sodium or Potassium Hydroxide Sodium or Potassium Methoxide Biodiesel Process Basic Overview Outputs Fuel Glycerin Biodiesel Crude Glycerin Biodiesel Process Sample Recipe Oil Alcohol Catalyst 100 Parts 10 to 20 Parts 0 5 to 3 Parts Manufacturers often provide a basic recipe to use as a starting point Biodiesel Process Outputs Biodiesel 100 Parts Crude Glycerin 10 20 Parts Biodiesel Process Questions to ask to determine the correct equipment capacity How much oil do you intend to process How much time are you willing to devote to operating the equipment Biodiesel Process Questions to ask to determine the correct equipment capacity How does your production time relate to the timing of your fuel consumption Fuel quality may deteriorate as storage time is increased Biodiesel Process Pre Reaction Equipment Oil Storage Tank Alcohol Storage Tank Catalyst Storage Biodiesel Reactor Pumps Filters Plumbing Biodiesel Process Post Reaction Equipment Settling tanks and or Separating Equipment Biodiesel Washing Equipment Biodiesel Drying Equipment Biodiesel Storage Tanks Glycerin Storage Tanks Pumps Filters Plumbing Biodiesel Process Biodiesel Equipment Micro Scale Processors 100 gallons or less per batch Numerous Manufacturers Some sold as kits Others sold as ready to use Accessories included in the package varies Biodiesel Process Micro Scale Biodiesel Processor Biodiesel Process Biodiesel Equipment Small Scale Processors 75 to 300 gallons per batch Fewer Manufacturers Usually not sold as kits Typically higher quality materials Accessories included in the package varies Biodiesel Process Small Scale Biodiesel Processor Biodiesel Process Sample Prices 40 gallon ready to use batch processor 2 995 Mix of plastic and steel components 60 gallon ready to use batch processor 7 609 Mostly stainless steel components 110 gallon ready to use batch processor 27 150 All Stainless steel components designed to be upgradeable to process 1 batch per hour Biodiesel Process Processing 4 200 Gallons 40 gallon processor 105 batches 60 gallon processor 70 batches 110 gallon processor 38 batches Biodiesel Process Operating Costs Oil Labor Alcohol Catalyst Electricity Final Products Biodiesel Process Biodiesel On Farm Use Blended Fuels Fuel Quality Important Vehicle Modifications May need to replace natural rubber fuel lines and gaskets Final Products Biodiesel Process Biodiesel Off Farm Use Fuel Quality Very Important ASTM Standards Marketing is required Final Products Biodiesel Process Crude Glycerin No Ready Market for Crude Glycerin Quantity produced is 10 to 20 of biodiesel production


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