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6 1 Chapter 6 Leadership and Values Leadership cannot just go along to get along Leadership must meet the moral challenge of the day Jesse Jackson McGraw Hill Irwin copyright 2009 by The McGraw Hill Companies inc 1 2 A Introduction Personal values may be one of the most important determinants of how power is exercised or constrained Mere possession of power leads to ethical questions about usage of power The challenge of leadership becomes complex in a diverse and global environment 6 3 Leadership and Doing the Right Things Leaders face dilemmas that require choices between competing sets of values and priorities Leaders set a moral example that becomes the model for an entire group or organization Leaders should internalize a strong set of ethics principles of right conduct or a system of moral values Good leaders tend to align the values of their followers with those of the organization or movement 6 4 Leadership and Doing the Right Things continued Four qualities of leadership that engenders trust Vision Empathy Consistency Integrity Two contrasting sets of assumptions people make about human nature Theory X Reflects that most people need extrinsic motivation Theory Y Reflects that most people are intrinsically motivated 6 5 What Are Values Values Constructs representing generalized behaviors or states of affairs that are considered by the individual to be important beliefs of a person or social group in which they have an emotional investment either for or against something WordReference com English Dictionary They play a fairly central role in one s overall psychological makeup They can affect behavior in a variety of situations Individuals in the same work unit can have considerably different values We can only make inferences about people s values based on their behavior 6 6 Are there Generational Differences in Values Pervasive influences of broad forces at a particular time tend to create common value systems This may contribute to misunderstandings and tension between older leaders and younger followers Each generation is molded by distinctive experiences at their critical developmental periods The Veterans 1922 1943 The Baby Boomers 1942 1960 The Gen Xers 1960 1980 The Nexters 1980 6 7 Recognized Generations Veterans Generational group that came of age in the Great Depression and World War II represent a wealth of lore and wisdom and have been the stabilizing force in organizations Baby Boomers Generational group of postwar babies that came of age in times of violent social protests lifestyle experimentation and pervasive questioning of establishment values this group is beginning to gray but they still have a lot of passion and commitment for work they want to create a level playing field for all but they hold too many meetings for GenXers GenXers Generational group who grew up during the Watergate scandal energy crisis higher divorce rates MTV and corporate downsizing tend to be technologically savvy independent and skeptical of institutions and hierarchy entrepreneurial and embrace change and are not much for job security they are loyal to a vocation more than an organization more likely than previous generations to seek balance in their lives Nexters Generational group that was born in 1980 or later current college students and making significant generalizations is risky this early in the generational development however they generally share an optimism based on how their parents raised them and they tend to doubt the wisdom of traditional racial and sexual categorizing 6 8 Are there Generational Differences in Values continued Research has also found that there is little evidence of a generation gap in basic values Research has also identified certain recurring generational archetypes Prophet generations Born after a great war or other crisis when there is rejuvenated community life and consensus around a new societal order Nomad generations Born during a cultural renewal when social idealism and spiritual agendas among the young foster a revolt against the established institutional order Hero generations Born after a spiritual awakening leading to a time of individual pragmatism self reliance laissez faire and national or sectional or ethnic chauvinism Artist generations Born during a great war or other crisis when worldly dangers force a relatively simple focus on essentials and public consensus and personal sacrifice prevail 6 9 Moral Reasoning An important consideration is how one thinks about value laden issues or ethical dilemmas Moral reasoning Process leaders use to make decisions about ethical and unethical behaviors Manner by which leaders solve moral problems Value differences often result in different judgments regarding ethical and unethical behavior Kohlberg offers that although the development of moral reasoning is invariant not all individuals actually achieve the highest stages 6 10 Kohlberg s Moral Development Levels Moral reasoning refers to the process leaders use to make determinations about ethical and unethical behavior Pre conventional level is based on decision making that is in the individual s self interest i e avoiding punishment or receiving rewards Conventional level is characterized by decision making that gains others approval or is in line with expectations of common societal norms Post conventional level is characterized by decision making that is based on universal abstract principles i e decisions based on justice Research points toward young adulthood 20 30 as a period of change for how people define what is morally right and wrong 6 11 Developmental Levels and Stages of Moral Reasoning 6 12 How Values Impact Leadership Values are primary determinants in what data are reviewed and how leaders define problems Values affect the solutions generated and the decisions made about problems Values often influence a leader s perceptions of individual and organizational successes and the manner in which they are achieved Values help leaders choose right from wrong and between ethical and unethical behavior 6 13 How Values Impact Leadership continued Leaders tend to like followers with similar values and dislike those with dissimilar values Leaders must surround themselves with followers who possess divergent values Leaders are motivated to act in ways consistent with their values They typically spend most of their time engaged in activities that are consistent with their values 6 14 Key Work Values 6 15 Leadership Values Profile VP or


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