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MORPHOLOGY AND LANGUAGE HISTORY IN HONOUR OF HAROLD KOCH Edited by CLAIRE BOWERN Yale University BETHWYN EVANS University of Manchester LUISA MICELI University of Western Australia JOHN BENJAMINS PUBLISHING COMPANY AMSTERDAM PHILADELPHIA The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of American National Standard for Information Sciences Permanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials ANSI 239 48 1984 Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Morphology and language history in honour of Harold Koch edited by Claire Bowern Bethwyn Evans Luisa Miceli p cm Amsterdam studies in the theory and history of linguistic science Series lV Current issues in linguistic theory ISSN 0304 0763 v 298 Includes bibliographical references and index 1 Grammar Comparative and general Morphology 2 Historical linguistics 1 Koch Harold James II Bowero Claire 1977 III Evans Bethwyn IV Miceli Luisa P241 M6525 2008 4Is den 2008019102 ISBN 978 90 272 4814 5 Hb alk paper 2008 John Benjamins B V No part of this book may be reproduced in any form by print photoprint microfilm or an other means without written pennission from the publisher John Benjamins Publishing Co P D Box 36224 1020 ME Amsterdam The Netherlands John Benjamins North America PO Box 27519 Philadelphia PA 19118 0519 USA HITTITE DUWAN PARA H CRAIG MELCHERT University of California Los Angeles I am pleased to offer the following lines in tribute to Harold Koch with fond memories of the times shared in Room B of Widener Library at Harvard when we began graduate study of historical linguistics together nearly four decades ago The Hittite adverb duwiin in those rare instances where it occurs alone is generally interpreted as hither Beckman 1996 157 Tischler 2001 182 Rieken 1999 69 and the equally rare combination duwiin parii as hitherto heretofore Friedrich 1952 231 Gliterbock Hoffner 1995 128 129 and Tischler lac cit The far more frequently attested correlative duwiin duwiin is typically glossed as hither and thither both Friedrich and Tischler lac cit Nevertheless the most popular etymology for duwiin is that which derives it from PIE dweh m dwam by Stang s Law as discussed below and sees it as forming a direct word equation with Grk orjv for a long time long ago see Tischler 1994 491 492 with references to Pisani Schindler and others The adverb duwiin is further analyzed as a fossilised accusative singular of a root noun also seen in Hittite tiiwa a far and tiiwaz from afar see e g Melchert 1984 30 following Schindler and Rieken 1999 70 For correlated duwiin duwiin there is a competing etymology based on PIE two two the one the other Benveniste 1962 84 85 but see the serious reservations of cardona 1987 5 Neither etymology explains the assigned synchronic meaning hither for duwiin alone Furthermore correlated duwiin duwiin means simply in one direction in the other Hoffner 1997 133 There is no evidence that in the correlated instances the first direction is near deictic indicating motion towards the speaker It is thus far from clear that single duwan and correlated duwiin duwiin are related Finally duwiin parii should mean for a long time long ago by the first etymology In what follows I will address these discrepancies as well as briefly review the formal problems of deriVing Hittite tllwa and tiiwaz from the same prehistoric paradigm as duwan which have never been fully acknowledged I begin with the combination duwan para The overall usage of Hittite parii is compatible with either heretofore or long ago for a long time for duwan parii I presented a preliminary oral version of thiS analysis at the Twenty Fifth East Coast IndoEuropean Conference at The ohio State University in Columbus ohio June 21 2006 r am 1 grateful to members of that audience in particular to Jay Jasanoff for helpful critical remarks I of course remain solely responsible for the views expressed here 2 Tischler 1994 492 is wrong in implying that Cardona uncritically endorsed Benveniste s comparison 202 H CRAJC MELCHERT In both cases para would mean before in time previously for which one may compare para band and atar divine providence actually divine preordination preparation as per Puhvel 1991 105 contra Giiterbock Hoffuer 1995 130 and peran para previously beforehand with renewal by addition of the synchronic adverb for before Compare also peran para UD KAM an the day before thus contra Giiterbock and Hoffner 1997 303 The contexts of two of the attested instances of duwan para also permit either heretofore or long ago for a long time The first is found in an oracular inquiry KUB 5 1 iii 53 54 NH NS BAD an ma mu za u uRuNerik SAG DU DlNGiR LIM iS duwan para GIM an SAG KI za barta kinuna ya QATAMMA kedani za kan LfL ri kuwatan imma kuwatan neyabbari nu mu pean l uiyaSi If you Storm god of Nerik are my personal deity as you have protected me for a long time heretofore will it now also be likewise Wherever I turn on this campaign will you run ahead of meT The second appears in a prayer of Mursili II regarding the plague KUB 14 14 Ro 37 39 NH NS I give in parentheses a translation of several preceding clauses in order to make clear the overall context The land of Hatti prospered You gods have now proceeded subsequently to take vengeance on my father for that affair ofTuthaliya the Younger My father oed on account of the blood ofTuthaliya Whatever princes lords commanders officers went over to the side of my father died from that affair That same affair also reached the land ofHatti and the land ofHatti began to die because of that affair nu KUR URuGIDRU ti duwan parra kinun a binkan para namma da s se sta KUR URuGIDRU ti I inganaz mekk dammeSIJaittat The land of Hatti has oed for a long time heretofore but now the plague has become even worse The land of Hatti has been much oppressed by the plague The decisive third example of duwan para again comes from an oracular inquiry KBo 2 2 iii 19 27 NH NS If you alone Sun goddess of Arihna are angry because of the vows made to obtain offspring and in addition no other deity is joined with you let the signs be favorable unfavorable Seeing that this was the outcome DlN GIR LUM kuit duwun para S allakartan h arkan nu z a DlNGIR L UM apaddan ser kartimmiyauwanza nu IT MES NU SIG du G SU A GUB an My textual citations follow the conventions of the Chicago Hittite Dictionary The sigla OH MH and NH old Hittite Middle Hittite and New Hittite respectively refer to the date of the composition of the texts while OS


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