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Residential Weed Management Montana Pesticide Education Program http mtpesticides org What is considered a weed Any plant growing where it is not wanted Obnoxious Weeds Toxic Weeds Invasive and Noxious weeds are the most troublesome Rapidly dominate the site Very difficult to control Weeds are Indicators of Site Conditions Salty Soils Shepherds Purse Russian Thistle Acid soils Very Acid Soils Horsetail Hawkweed Knapweed Badly drained soils Horsetail Deep shade Ground ivy chickweed Noxious Weeds in Montana Landowners are responsible for controlling the spread noxious weeds on their property Cat 1 established widespread Cat 2 recently introduced and rapidly spreading Cat 3 Not yet detected or in few locations Category 1 Category 2 Noxious Weeds in Montana Category 3 Weed Management Prevention is the most effective practice of all Buy clean seed for wildflowers or lawns don t plant weeds Clean yard equipment before using it in another area Get weeds along streams under control Use mulch materials or weed mats Pull weeds early before they go to seed Control Methods Mechanical Mowing hand pulling burning solarizing Cultural Shading site preparation plant appropriate competitive vegetation Biological Parasites predators and pathogens typically a slow process not for urban Chemical Repeated application Plants must be growing USE ACCORDING TO LABEL Weed Biology Life Cycles Exploit Weed Weaknesses Monocots parallel leaf veins Grasses growth points at below soil level Grass family Cheatgrass quackgrass Sedge family Nutsedge Lily family Wild onion death camas Dicots net like leaf veins diverse Broadleaf growing points Composite family Dandelions thistles knapweed Mustard family Shepherd s purse lambsquarter whitetop Carrot family Hemlock Many others Stages of Weed Development 1 Seedling Tender vulnerable 2 Vegetative Great uptake of water and nutrients 3 Seed production Reduced uptake energy directed to flowers fruit 4 Maturity Little uptake or energy production Annual weeds live one year Summer annuals seed die by winter Pigweed lambsquarter black medic Winter annuals germinate in late summer overwinter produce seed die the next season Chickweed curly dock cheatgrass black medic Biennial weeds broadleaf plants with a 2 year life cycle vegetative growth first year Rosette mature seed and die in second year Houndstongue mullein burdock bull thistle Perennial weeds live 3 or more years most persistent difficult to control propagules rhizomes stolons bulbs tubers wide range of dicots and monocots Managing Landscape Weeds Maintain competition grazing management Prevent seed production Prevent seed germination Limit emerged weeds early Limit susceptible stages of mature weeds Chemical designed to control weeds Plant soil and weather conditions influence herbicidal activity Herbicide Characteristics Contact Systemic Herbicide Characteristics Persistent Non Persistent Herbicide Characteristics Selective Non Selective Herbicide Characteristics Application in relation to plant development Pre plant Before crop is planted Pre emergent Before weeds emerge Post emergent After weeds emerge Herbicides and Plant Characteristics Growing points Leaf shape and orientation Wax and cuticle Herbicides and Plant Characteristics Leaf hairs Deactivation Life cycle stage Herbicide Effectiveness 100 80 60 control 40 20 0 seedling vegetative flowering mature Climatic Factors Relative humidity Light Precipitation Temperature Bull Thistle Cirsium vulgare Biennial 2 5 feet tall Flowers purple JulySeptember Reproduces by seed Seed can be viable for 10 years Control hand pull cut or mow before going to seed herbicides When Canada Thistle Cirsium arvense Perennial Flowers light pink purple Grows 1 4 feet tall Has deep horizontal roots Reproduces through creeping roots some seed Control pull by hand small plants apply herbicides spot spraying young plants is very effective Poison Hemlock Conium maculatum Biennial Grows to 10 feet tall Tiny white flowers purple mottled stems All parts of plant are highly poisonous if eaten Reproduces by seed Control hand pull or dig small plants apply herbicides in early spring or late fall be sure to wear gloves properly dispose of all plant material Purple Loosestrife Lythrum salicaria Perennial Flowers purple on spikes Stems are square plant can be 6 8 feet in height Reproduces by seed and roots Control cut dig or hand pull small plants cut and remove the flowering spikes to prevent new seedlings apply herbicides when actively growing at full to late flowering Weed treatment in riparian areas Select the most effective treatment methods for the site If herbicides are used be sure the label allows application adjacent to or in the water Consider wipe application or hand removal Herbicides in a Residential Setting Animals kids Non target vegetation Concerns over chemical use Movement of contaminated soil and vegetation Drift Sensitive areas Where is this water going Sprayers For Urban Residential Use Up to 1 acre 1 acre on Skiddepending Mount tank size GPA Hose End Spot Treatment 1 10th acre ATV Lawn Tractor Backpack Hand Held General Precautions Prevent Drift Calibrate Your Sprayer Add the right amount Use Common Sense What To Use 1 30 Dicamba 3 05 2 4 D 10 6 MCPP 8 0 Triclopyr Now what Inventory the plants on your property Identify invasive plants and weeds Do you have a weed problem Why What can you change about the way you manage your property to decrease the weed population Then Determine appropriate controls and your plans for the site and start working Monitor for invasive plants Plant native plants in your yard after the weeds are under control Share this information with others

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