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# The Blood Pressure Analogy

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New Harmonic Diagnostic Indices A Proposition for Discussion P F Ribeiro Calvin College Engineering Department EMI Power Quality Safety Workshop f Arizona State University Iowa State University University of Wisconsin Texas A M and Georgia Institute of Technology P F Ribeiro Date April 18 19 2002 Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta Georgia The Blood Pressure Analogy Compatibility vs Absolute Measure P F Ribeiro Relative Trespass Level RTL U k Uref k RTL k max 0 Uref k Uk measured or calculated harmonic voltage Uref harmonic voltage limit standard or particular equipment k harmonic order 8 8 8 6 6 RT L k RT L k 4 0 2 2 P F Ribeiro 4 2 2 0 8 4 6 8 k 10 12 14 13 0 0 0 0 05 0 1 0 Uk 1 Harmonic Distortion Diagnostic Index HDD 50 RTL k k 2 Exponent 2 or 4 k 50 or less P F Ribeiro 2 Harmonic Distortion Diagnostic Index Applying Fuzzy Logic Comparisons Alternative Approach HDD Fuzzy Logic 1 0 P F Ribeiro a Normal Levels Caution Possible Problems Severe Distortions b c d e Dangerous Levels f g RTL Harmonic Distortion Diagnostic Index Applying Fuzzy Logic Comparisons Magnitude Phase Angle Individual Harmonics Vh Equipment Malfunction Fuzzy Color Code Criteria No Problem a Below Below Normal Normal Equipment Malfunction Alternative Approach Caution c Normal Over Heating b Possible Problems d Very Hot Imminent Problems 1 e P F Ribeiro Normal Levels 0 A B Caution Possible Severe Dangerous Problems Distortions Levels C D E F G RTL Total Harmonic Distortion Diagnostic Index Applying Fuzzy Logic Comparisons Alternative Approach VTHD Vthd THDD max 0 Vthd VTHD total harmonic distortion measure or calculated Vthd total harmonic distortion limit P F Ribeiro Total Harmonic Distortion Diagnostic Index Applying Fuzzy Logic Comparisons Temperature Celsius Harmonic Distortion THDv Versus Equipment Heating Fuzzy Color Code Criteria Below Normal No Problem 90 100 110 Below Normal Over Heating Normal Equipment Heating Alternative Approach Caution Possible Problems Very Hot 120 Imminent Problems 150 1 Normal Levels P F Ribeiro 0 2 3 CautionPossible Severe Dangerous ProblemsDistortions Levels 4 5 6 7 8 THDv in Example 1 U k 0 001 0 015 0 001 0 03 0 001 0 015 0 001 0 009 0 001 0 02 0 001 0 015 P F Ribeiro Uref k 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 2 2 0 3 0 5 4 0 5 2 6 0 RTL 7 0 5 0 03 0 04 Uk Urefk 0 02 8 0 9 0 10 0 THDD max 0 11 1 0 12 0 13 0 5 1 10 3 VTHD Vthd 2 2 Vthd 4 6 8 k 10 12 14 13 Example 1 13 2 VTHD U k 100 k 2 13 VHDD k RTL k 2 2 VHDD 2 398 VTHD 4 541 THDD max 0 THDD 0 P F Ribeiro VTHD Vthd Vthd Vthd 5 Example 2 U k 0 001 0 01 0 001 0 0 0 001 0 01 0 001 0 01 0 001 0 01 0 001 0 01 P F Ribeiro Uref k 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 2 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 6 0 RTL 7 0 8 0 9 0 10 0 11 0 12 0 2 13 0 2 0 02 Uk Urefk 0 01 0 0 4 6 8 k 10 12 14 13 Example 2 13 VHDD k 13 2 VTHD U k 100 k 2 RTL k 2 2 VHDD 0 VTHD 2 249 THDD max 0 THDD 0 P F Ribeiro VTHD Vthd Vthd Vthd 5 Example 3 U k 0 001 0 001 0 001 0 02 0 001 0 02 0 001 0 001 0 001 0 05 0 001 0 04 P F Ribeiro Uref k 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 2 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 1 6 0 RTL 7 1 8 0 9 0 10 0 11 4 12 0 13 3 0 05 0 04 Uk Urefk 0 02 1 10 3 0 2 2 4 6 8 k 10 12 14 13 Example 3 13 VHDD k 13 2 VTHD Uk 100 k 2 RTL k 2 2 VHDD 5 196 VTHD 7 006 THDD max 0 THDD 0 401 P F Ribeiro VTHD Vthd Vthd Vthd 5 U k 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 P F Ribeiro Example 4 Uref k 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 2 3 0 4 0 5 0 6 0 7 0 8 0 9 0 RTL 10 0 11 0 12 0 13 0 14 0 15 0 16 0 17 0 18 0 0 025 0 02 Uk Urefk 0 01 0 01 0 0 10 15 2 n VHDD 5 k RTL k 2 2 VHDD 0 20 k n 2 VTHD U k 100 k 2 VTHD 5 292 THDD max 0 VTHD Vthd Vthd THDD 0 058 25 30 29 Vthd 5 Patterns and Diagnostics Diagnosing Problems If HDD 0 Possible If THDD 0 If HDD 0 No If THDD 0 If HDD 0 Yes If THDD 0 If HDD 0 If THDD 0 P F Ribeiro Possible Conclusions Indices may provide additional insight on diagnosing harmonic problems HDD provides information on individual harmonic distortion compatibility THDD provides information on total harmonic distortion compatibility Reference values can be adjusted to individual equipment or standard When the equipment is more sensitive to waveform distortion use HDD When the equipment is more sensitive to heating effects use THDD Additional rules could be incorporated to expand the concept and applications to other power quality parameters and more realistic diagnostic evaluations P F Ribeiro

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