DMACC BIO 112 - Prenatal Development And Birth (42 pages)

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Prenatal Development And Birth



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Prenatal Development And Birth

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Pages:
42
School:
Des Moines Area Community College
Course:
Bio 112 - General Biology I
General Biology I Documents
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3 Prenatal Development And Birth This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law The following are prohibited by law any public performance or display including transmission of any image over a network preparation of any derivative work including the extraction in whole or part of any images any rental lease or lending of the program http www ablongman com bee4e Copyright Allyn Bacon 2006 Conception and Genetics The Process of Conception Ovum Sperm The Journey of Sperm toward Ovum Chromosomes DNA Genes X and Y chromosomes Copyright Allyn Bacon 2006 Conception and Genetics Twins Identical Fraternal Twins in genetic research Increases in multiple births Copyright Allyn Bacon 2006 Conception and Genetics Genotype the genetic blueprint Phenotype observable characteristics Dominant recessive pattern Dominant genes always express their characteristics Recessive genes come in pairs to express their characteristics Copyright Allyn Bacon 2006 Copyright Allyn Bacon 2006 Conception and Genetics Polygenic Inheritance Many genes blend together to increase the genetic outcomes seen in the phenotype Copyright Allyn Bacon 2006 Conception and Genetics Genomic Imprinting Some genes are biochemically marked at the time ova and sperm develop Mitochondrial Inheritance Genes passed only from mother to child Copyright Allyn Bacon 2006 Conception and Genetics Multi Factorial Inheritance Individuals and environment Differ in their reactivity Two way interplay Ecological framework People process their experiences Active versus passive People shape and select their experiences Copyright Allyn Bacon 2006 Pregnancy and Prenatal Development The Mother s Experience First Trimester The zygote The cervix Prenatal care Ectopic pregnancy Copyright Allyn Bacon 2006 Pregnancy and Prenatal Development The Mother s Experience Second Trimester Fetus grows rapidly Sex can be determined after week 13 Fetal movement felt between week 16 and 18 Prenatal care may detect gestational diabetes Copyright Allyn Bacon 2006 Pregnancy and Prenatal Development The Mother s Experience Third Trimester Colostrum Emotional connection between mother and baby Hiccups and thumbsucking visible Regular periods of activity and rest Toxemia Copyright Allyn Bacon 2006 Pregnancy and Prenatal Development 3 Stages of Prenatal Development The Germinal Stage The Zygote From conception to implantation Specialization of cells needed to support development Blastocyst Placenta Umbilical cord Yolk sac Amnion Copyright Allyn Bacon 2006 Pregnancy and Prenatal Development 3 Stages of Prenatal Development The Embryonic Stage Forms the foundations of all body organs Neural tube develops All major organs and systems begin to develop By week 7 the Y chromosome directs the development of the penis with the help of testosterone Copyright Allyn Bacon 2006 Pregnancy and Prenatal Development 3 Stages of Prenatal Development The Fetal Stage Growth from 1 4 ounce and 1 inch to 7 pounds and 20 inches in length Refinement of all organ systems Surfactant Vernix Age of viability week 24 Engagement Copyright Allyn Bacon 2006 Pregnancy and Prenatal Development Sex Differences Males are More physically active More vulnerable to prenatal problems Females are More sensitive to external stimulation More rapid skeletal development Copyright Allyn Bacon 2006 Pregnancy and Prenatal Development Prenatal Behavior Fetal response occurs to sounds and vibrations Fetuses can differentiate between familiar and novel stimuli Prenatal learning can influence motor and cognitive development Very active fetuses tend to be active children who can be labeled hyperactive Copyright Allyn Bacon 2006 Problems in Prenatal Development Genetic Disorders Autosomal Disorders Caused by recessive genes Phenylketonuria PKU Sickle cell disease Tay Sachs disease Caused by dominant genes Huntington s disease Copyright Allyn Bacon 2006 Questions to Ponder You are told by a genetic counselor that you have 25 chance of passing on a deadly genetic trait to your child Do you still have a child What factors influence your choice How do we curtail the use of teratogens such as smoking and alcohol use by pregnant women Copyright Allyn Bacon 2006 Problems in Prenatal Development Genetic Disorders Sex Linked Disorders Red green colorblindness Hemophilia Fragile X syndrome Caused by recessive gene on X chromosome Boys suffer more often than girls Copyright Allyn Bacon 2006 Copyright Allyn Bacon 2006 Problems in Prenatal Development Chromosomal Errors Trisomies Trisomy 21 Down Syndrome Mental retardation Distinctive facial features Physical abnormalities Maternal age is a major factor Copyright Allyn Bacon 2006 Problems in Prenatal Development Chromosomal Errors Sex Chromosome Anomalies XXY Klinefelter s syndrome XO Turner s syndrome XXX girls with an extra X XYY boys with an extra Y Copyright Allyn Bacon 2006 Problems in Prenatal Development Teratogens Substances that cause damage to an embryo Each organ system is most vulnerable to harm when its development is most rapid Figure 3 5 The first 8 weeks are the most dangerous Copyright Allyn Bacon 2006 Problems in Prenatal Development Teratogens Maternal Diseases Rubella HIV Other sexually transmitted diseases Syphilis Genital herpes Gonorrhea Cytomegalovirus Copyright Allyn Bacon 2006 Copyright Allyn Bacon 2006 Problems in Prenatal Development Teratogens Drugs Smoking Drinking Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Marijuana and Heroin Cocaine Copyright Allyn Bacon 2006 Problems in Prenatal Development Other Maternal Influences Diet Folic acid deficiencies Malnutrition Low birth weight Brain stunting Fetal death Copyright Allyn Bacon 2006 Problems in Prenatal Development Other Maternal Influences Age First pregnancies are occurring later average age is now 25 1 years Women over 35 have higher risks for pregnancy complications Teenage mothers May suffer from poverty and poor prenatal care Children may exhibit learning and behavior problems in school Copyright Allyn Bacon 2006 Problems in Prenatal Development Other Maternal Influences Chronic Illnesses Depression can slow fetal growth Epilepsy medication can cause defects Most medical conditions must be monitored to support the health of the mother and the developing fetus Copyright Allyn Bacon 2006 Problems in Prenatal Development Environmental Hazards Limiting exposure to mercury Avoiding possible harmful chemicals Lead Arsenic Anesthetic gasses Solvents Parasite bearing substances Copyright Allyn Bacon 2006


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