UF CEN 5531 - LECTURE NOTES (32 pages)

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LECTURE NOTES



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LECTURE NOTES

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Pages:
32
School:
University of Florida-Gainesville
Course:
Cen 5531 - Mobile Computing
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Message Oriented Middleware and Hierarchical Routing Protocols Smita Singhaniya Sowmya Marianallur Dhanasekaran Madan Puthige 1 Wireless Sensor Networks increasing development of wireless sensor networks WSNs scarce resources memory battery processing capacity thousand of nodes event driven traditional middleware systems are heavyweight request reply communication is not adequate 2 WSN Scenario observation region sensor nodes sink node user application 3 Message Oriented Middleware MIRES Middleware for WSNs enables communication between sensing based applications provides a set of middleware services hides the complexity of communication underlying mechanisms from the sensing based applications 4 MIRES Basic Facts message oriented middleware publish subscribe service asynchronous communication encapsulates network level protocols routing and topology control protocols aggregation service collects and integrates data generated from a large and physically dispersed set of nodes API Application Programming Interface 5 MIRES Architecture Node NodeApplication Application MIRES Routing Routing Aggregation Service Service1 Service ServiceN N Publish subscribe service Operating System Sensors CPU Radio 6 MIRES Publish Subscribe Service a publish subscribe middleware Sender se subscribers receivers nd asynchronous communication sender and receiver may not be present in the network at the same time m applications Receiver n publishes sender and MOM ca tio no tif i Queue Operating System Hardware topics subject 7 MIRES Publish Subscribe Service allows the communication Node NodeApplication Application between middleware services responsible for advertises topics maintains the list of topics MIRES Routing Routing Aggregation Service Service 1 Service ServiceN N subscribed by the node application Publish subscribe service publishes messages containing data related to the advertised topics Operating System Sensors CPU Radio 8 MIRES Publish Subscribe Service Node Application MIRES TinyOS nesC language component based Aggregation Routing Routing Service Service 1 Publish subscribe service programming model each component provides Service ServiceN N Operating System Sensors CPU Radio and uses services component s interface is made up of commands procedures 9 MIRES Publish Subscribe Service publish subscribe service other components Node application sink node user application advertises its ability of sensing data related to a topic the publish subscribe services sends that information to the network 10 MIRES Publish Subscribe Service message arrival from the network all messages are addressed to the sink node MultiRouter signalises an intercept an event sink node user application the publish subscribe service updates its internal control the publish subscribe services returns an indication that the message can be forwarded 11 MIRES Publish Subscribe Service topic subscription user application broadcasts sensor nodes subscribed topics to the network BCast signals a receive sink node user application event the publish subscribe service notifies services attached to it 12 MIRES Publish Subscribe Service sensor nodes sink node user application 13 MIRES Aggregation Service the aggregation of data collected from sensors Room 1 Room 2 Room 3 Room 4 reduces the number of transmissions performed in each node configuration parameters aggregation function e g suppression min max average stop criteria sink user application 14 MIRES Aggregation Service Room Node application Sensor readings Publish messages Mires Incoming messages TinyOS user application 15 MIRES Routing Multi hop routing algorithm Clustering based Hierarchical Routing Protocols 16 Hierarchical Protocol Multi hop communication with network clustering Data Aggregation and Fusion LEACH PEGASIS TEEN and APTEEN 17 Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy Cluster head for the current round if the random number is less than the following threshold p is the desired percentage of cluster heads r is the current round G is the set of nodes that have not been cluster heads in the last 1 p rounds 18 Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy Cluster Heads at time t Cluster Heads at time t d 19 Drawbacks of LEACH Single hop routing each node transmits directly to the clusterhead and cluster head directly to the sink Dynamic clustering extra overhead 20 Power Efficient Gathering in Sensor Information System PEGASIS Eliminates dynamic cluster formation Minimizes distance non leader nodes must transmit Limits the no of transmissions and receptions among all nodes Only one transmission to the BS per round 21 Chaining in PEGASIS C0 C1 C3 C4 Nonleader nodes C2 Leader Node Each node communicates only with the closest neighbor Gathered data moves from node to node get fused and sent to the BS by the designated leader node Nodes take turns being the leader I mod N Chaining is done using the greedy approach 22 Hierarchical PEGASIS with CDMA Constructs a chain of nodes that forms a tree like hierarchy Data transmitting in parallel Tree is balanced the delay will be in O log N 23 Nodes at even positions transmit data to their right Nodes receiving at each level rise to next level in hierarchy 24 Comparison of PEGASIS with LEACH PEGASIS has been shown to outperform LEACH by about 100 to 300 for different network sizes and topologies 25 Threshold sensitive Energy Efficient sensor Network protocol 26 Threshold sensitive Energy Efficient sensor Network protocol Responsive to sudden changes in the sensed attributes such as temperature Cluster head broadcasts to the nodes Attributes Hard threshold Soft threshold TEEN is not good for applications where periodic reports are needed 27 Adaptive Threshold sensitive Energy Efficient sensor Network protocol Captures both periodic data and reacts to time critical events Historical to analyze past data values one time to take a snapshot view of the network Persistent to monitor an event for a period of time 28 Threshold sensitive Energy Efficient sensor Network protocol Time line for the operation of TEEN and APTEEN 29 Drawbacks of TEEN and APTEEN Overhead and complexity of forming clusters in multiple levels Implementing threshold based functions Dealing with attribute based naming of queries 30 Conclusion publish subscribe paradigm asynchronous communication model multi hop routing algorithm hierarchical routing algorithm 31 Questions Thank You 32


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