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Flora of China 25 57 63 2009 10 CHEIROSTYLIS Blume Bijdr 413 1825 cha zhu lan shu Chen Xinqi Chen Sing chi Stephan W Gale Phillip J Cribb Paul Ormerod Arisanorchis Hayata Gymnochilus Blume Mariarisqueta Guinea Herbs terrestrial or occasionally epiphytic small Rhizome decumbent moniliform to terete fleshy with many contracted nodes roots usually reduced to fine hairs and arranged along ridges on rhizome internodes rarely fleshy and emerging from rhizome nodes Stem erect very short to elongate glabrous with 2 to several subrosulate or scattered cauline leaves Leaves often withered at anthesis ovate to cordate with a short petiole like base dilating into a tubular amplexicaul sheath Inflorescence erect terminal racemose very short to elongate 1 to many flowered glabrous to pubescent Flowers resupinate usually small mostly not secund ovary shortly pedicellate twisted fusiform glabrous to pubescent Sepals membranous outer surface glabrous to pubescent connate for half to almost entire length and forming a tube or rarely free Petals usually connivent with dorsal sepal lip adnate to column margin at base sometimes simple and entire though usually 3 partite hypochile often dilated and saccate containing fleshy lobed or seriate comblike papillose calli mesochile subtubular short to elongate epichile spreading 2 lobed or rarely entire margin laciniate dentate wavy or entire Column short ventrally with 2 elongate armlike appendages stelidia parallel to rostellum anther erect ovoid 2 locular pollinia 2 each longitudinally 2 partite granular farinaceous clavate attached to solitary oblong viscidium rostellum deeply bifid 2 elongate arms erect parallel stigma lobes 2 separate convex rather large placed laterally near apex of column and below rostellum Capsule ellipsoid About 50 species from tropical Africa through tropical Asia to New Guinea Australia and the Pacific islands 17 species eight endemic in China Hayata considered species with an entire lip to comprise a distinct genus Arisanorchis but they conform to Cheirostylis in other respects sepals basally fused and forming a tube column with two elongate stelidia rostellum deeply bifid and are most likely peloric forms A monographic revision of the genus is highly desirable given that overlapping species concepts remain a problem in separating taxa named from different regions The endemic species of Taiwan and Hong Kong in particular remain poorly known and are in need of re examination 1a Leafy stem elongate 1 5 3 8 cm leaves cauline scattered sometimes becoming clustered toward apex of stem inflorescence shorter than equal to or sometimes slightly longer than but always less than 2 as long as leafy stem 2a Leaves elliptic oblong 5 7 cm sepals free not forming a tube 1 C tabiyahanensis 2b Leaves usually ovate 0 4 3 2 cm sepals connate for 1 2 3 5 of length and forming a tube 3a Leaves up to 0 7 cm sepals 2 5 3 mm 2 C pusilla 3b Leaves 1 3 2 cm sepals 3 11 mm 4a Inflorescence to 1 cm peduncle often enclosed by leaf bases and not visible beyond stem apex ovary glabrous petals 9 10 mm hypochile calli comblike composed of several seriate papillose appendages 5a Apices of sepals acute epichile without a tooth at apex between 2 lobes lobes deeply 4 or 5 laciniate each division 3 4 mm 3 C octodactyla 5b Apices of sepals obtuse epichile with an acute tooth at apex between 2 lobes lobes 5 or 6 laciniate each division 1 2 mm 4 C pingbianensis 4b Inflorescence 2 7 cm peduncle long free of leaf bases and visible beyond stem apex ovary pubescent or villous petals 4 4 5 mm hypochile calli bifid 6a Leaves ovate to lanceolate 1 5 2 2 cm petiole like base and sheath 1 5 1 8 cm epichile lobes deeply 4 or 5 laciniate 5 C tortilacinia 6b Leaves ovate orbicular 2 3 cm petiole like base and sheath 0 7 0 9 cm epichile lobes wavy to shallowly 2 or 3 dentate teeth broad with acute tips 6 C liukiuensis 1b Leafy stem usually no more than 3 cm rarely to 5 cm leaves subrosulate or congested at base of stem inflorescence at least 2 as long as leafy stem 7a Lip simple entire hypochile lacking papillose calli 8a Ovary and outer surface of sepals glabrous lip spatulate 3 5 mm 7 C clibborndyeri 8b Ovary and outer surface of sepals pubescent lip narrowly oblong 6 8 mm 8 C takeoi 7b Lip 3 partite epichile lobes dentate or laciniate at margin hypochile containing papillose calli 9a Sepals and petals 13 15 mm lip 15 17 mm 9 C griffithii 9b Sepals and petals 3 6 5 9 mm lip 5 12 mm 10a Hypochile shortly spurred 17 C calcarata 10b Hypochile saccate never spurred 11a Hypochile divided by a longitudinal septum into 2 parts each part with 1 or 2 horn shaped calli 13 C malipoensis Flora of China 25 57 63 2009 11b Hypochile lacking a longitudinal septum calli bifid or comblike 12a Epichile lobes deeply laciniate divisions narrowly linear hypochile calli bifid 13a Rhizome moniliform olive green leaves 0 8 1 cm wide petiole like base to 4 mm lip 8 11 5 mm 10 C monteiroi 13b Rhizome torose reddish leaves 1 2 1 7 cm wide petiole like base 4 10 mm lip 5 6 mm 11 C cochinchinensis 12b Epichile lobes irregularly dentate to wavy teeth coarse triangular with acute tips or truncate with obtuse tips hypochile calli comblike 3 6 toothed 14a Sepals and petals 5 6 5 9 mm lip 9 12 mm 15a Epichile deeply bilobed apical margin obviously dentate 12 C yunnanensis 15b Epichile shallowly bilobed apical margin obscurely denticulate to wavy 14 C thailandica 14b Sepals and petals 3 4 mm lip 5 7 mm 16a Epichile lobes wavy to shallowly dentate teeth truncate with obtuse tips hypochile calli 2 or 3 lobed 15 C jamesleungii 16b Epichile margin distinctly dentate teeth triangular with acute tips hypochile calli 4 6 lobed 16 C chinensis 1 Cheirostylis tabiyahanensis Hayata N Pearce P J Cribb Edinburgh J Bot 56 278 1999 dong bu cha zhu lan Zeuxine tabiyahanensis Hayata Icon Pl Formosan 6 89 1916 Cheirostylis nemorosa Fukuyama Macodes tabiyahanensis Hayata S S Ying Z nemorosa Fukuyama T P Lin Plants 10 20 cm tall Rhizome creeping terete short roots emerging from rhizome nodes cylindric slender densely pubescent Stem ascending 5 8 cm 5 or 6 leaved Leaves cauline to clustered at stem apex elliptic oblong 5 7 ca 2 5 cm base cuneate apex acute petiole like base and sheath 1 2 cm Inflorescence 6 7 cm sparsely pubescent with 2 or 3 sterile bracts rachis 3 4 cm subdensely 3 8 flowered floral bracts lanceolate 1 5 2 ca 0 4 cm abaxially pubescent apex acuminate Flowers slightly nodding ovary and pedicel 7 9 mm sparsely


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