UNO CSCI 8556 - Internetworking (15 pages)

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Internetworking



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Internetworking

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Pages:
15
School:
University of Nebraska Omaha
Course:
Csci 8556 - Communication Networks
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CSCI 4550 8556 Computer Networks Comer Chapter 17 Internetworking Concepts Architecture and Protocols Motivation There are many different LAN and WAN technologies In the real world computers are connected by many different technologies Any system that spans a large organization must accommodate multiple technologies Universal Service Telephones are useful because any telephone can reach any other telephone Universal service among computers greatly increases the usefulness of each computer Providing universal service requires interconnecting networks employing different technologies Internetworking Internetworking is a scheme for interconnecting multiple networks of dissimilar technologies Internetworking uses both hardware and software Extra hardware is positioned between the connected networks Extra software is installed on each attached computer A system of interconnected networks is called an internetwork or an internet note the lower case i Routers A router is a hardware component used to interconnect networks A router has interfaces on multiple networks Networks can use different technologies Router forwards packets between networks Transforms packets as necessary to meet standards for each network Internet Architecture An internetwork is composed of arbitrarily many networks interconnected by routers Routers can have more than two interfaces Routers in an Organization It would be possible to interconnect all networks in an organization with a single router However most organizations use multiple routers Each router has finite capacity a single router would have to handle all traffic across an entire organization Because internetworking technology can automatically route around failed components using multiple routers increases reliability A Virtual Network Internetworking software builds a single seamless virtual network out of multiple physical networks This provides a universal addressing scheme and universal service All details of the physical networks are hidden from the users and the application programs Illusion and Reality The Illusion The Reality A Protocol Suite for Internetworking The TCP IP Internet Protocols or simply TCP IP is the mostly widely used internetworking protocol suite It is the first internetworking protocol suite The internet concept originally called catenet was developed in conjunction with TCP IP The project was initially funded through ARPA It was later picked up by NSF Its origins are described in Where Wizards Stay Up Late Internetworking Protocols Others include IPX VINES and AppleTalk TCP IP is by far the most widely used internetworking protocol It is vendor and platform independent It is the protocol suite used in the Internet 82 million computers in 210 countries as of the date of textbook publication TCP IP Layering OSI 7 layer model does not include internetworking TCP IP layering model includes five layers Layer 5 Application corresponds to ISO model layers 6 and 7 used for communication among applications Layer 4 Transport corresponds to layer 4 in the ISO model provides reliable delivery of data Layer 3 Internet defines uniform format of packets forwarded across networks of different technologies and rules for forwarding packets in routers Layer 2 Network corresponds to layer 2 in the ISO model defines formats for carrying packets in hardware frames Layer 1 Hardware corresponds to layer 1 in the ISO model defines basic networking hardware The TCP IP Layering Model Hosts Routers and Protocol Layers A host computer or host is any system attached to an internet that runs applications Hosts may be supercomputers or toasters TCP IP allows any pair of hosts on an internet to communicate directly Both hosts and routers have TCP IP stacks Hosts typically have one interface and don t forward packets Routers don t need layers 4 and 5 for packet forwarding Summary An internet is a collection of physical networks interconnected into a single virtual network Routers provide the physical interconnection and forward packets between networks Hosts communicate across multiple network through packets forwarded by routers TCP IP is the most widely used internetworking protocol suite


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