SCCC BIO 130 - Brain And Cranial Nerves (19 pages)

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Brain And Cranial Nerves



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Brain And Cranial Nerves

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Pages:
19
School:
Suffolk County Community College
Course:
Bio 130 - Organic Chemistry
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Nervous System Brain and Cranial Nerves Chapter 14 Lecture Materials for Amy Warenda Czura Ph D Suffolk County Community College Eastern Campus Primary Sources for figures and content Marieb E N Human Anatomy Physiology 6th ed San Francisco Pearson Benjamin Cummings 2004 Martini F H Fundamentals of Anatomy Physiology 6th ed San Francisco Pearson Benjamin Cummings 2004 Amy Warenda Czura Ph D 1 SCCC BIO130 Chapter 14 Lecture Slides The Brain and Cranial Nerves Spinal cord reflex immediate response Brain thinking adaptable but slower Brain Structure 1 Cerebrum largest part of human brain 2 cerebral hemispheres covered in cerebral neural cortex surface convoluted to increase surface area for neurons 3ft2 gyri elevated ridges sulci depressions fissures big sulci Amy Warenda Czura Ph D 2 SCCC BIO130 Chapter 14 Lecture Slides longitudinal fissure separates left and right hemispheres base of fissure has corpus callosum axons to connect neurons of hemispheres hemispheres divided into five lobes each Amy Warenda Czura Ph D 3 SCCC BIO130 Chapter 14 Lecture Slides central sulcus divides frontal lobes from parietal lobes lateral sulcus divides frontal lobes from temporal lobes parieto occipital sulcus divides parietal lobes from occipital lobes insula located at base of lateral sulcus beneath frontal and temporal lobes Amy Warenda Czura Ph D 4 SCCC BIO130 Chapter 14 Lecture Slides 2 Cerebellum second largest part consists of right and left hemispheres connected by the vermis covered in cerebellar cortex folia instead of gyri each hemisphere divided into anterior and posterior lobes by the primary fissure Amy Warenda Czura Ph D 5 SCCC BIO130 Chapter 14 Lecture Slides 3 Diencephalon links cerebral hemispheres to brain stem 3 parts epithalamus thalamus hypothalamus 4 Brain stem connects to spinal cord consists of mesencephalon pons and medulla oblongata Amy Warenda Czura Ph D 6 SCCC BIO130 Chapter 14 Lecture Slides 5 Ventricles holes in brain that circulate CSF A Lateral ventricles in each cerebral hemisphere B Third ventricle in diencephalon C Fourth ventricle in between pons and cerebellum connects to central canal of spinal cord Protection of the brain 1 Cranial bones form the skull occipital frontal sphenoid ethmoid parietals temporals Amy Warenda Czura Ph D 7 SCCC BIO130 Chapter 14 Lecture Slides 2 Cranial meninges hold brain in place prevent contact with skull A Dura mater two layers no epidural space fused to periosteum forms dural folds deep into fissures 1 falx cerebri between cerebral hemispheres in longitundinal fissure 2 tentorium cerebelli between cerebrum and cerebellum 3 falx cerebelli between cerebellar hemispheres Amy Warenda Czura Ph D 8 SCCC BIO130 Chapter 14 Lecture Slides B Arachnoid 1 arachnoid membrane 2 arachnoid trabeculae span subarachnoid space which contains CSF C Pia mater adheres to brain via astrocytes follows topology of gyri and sulci 3 Cerebrospinal fluid functions a cushion brain b support brain c diffusion medium produced by choroid plexus ependymal cells plus capillaries in brain ventricles Amy Warenda Czura Ph D 9 SCCC BIO130 Chapter 14 Lecture Slides volume of CSF in brain and cord turned over every 8hrs choroid plexus secretes 500ml day CSF reabsorbed at arachnoid granulations Amy Warenda Czura Ph D 10 SCCC BIO130 Chapter 14 Lecture Slides Hydrocephalus infants failure to reabsorb CSF fluid expands cranium and crushes brain http www telegraph co uk news graphics 2005 04 28 wviet28a jpg http tier cs berkeley edu gallery ghana05 IMGP1551 001 http uuhsc utah edu healthinfo images ei 0433 gif http www diagnostico com Trejos HydrocephalusIII JPG Amy Warenda Czura Ph D 11 SCCC BIO130 Chapter 14 Lecture Slides 4 Blood brain barrier capillaries of CNS less permeable endothelial cells linked by tight junctions astrocytes cover capillary surface only lipid soluble compounds diffuse into CNS all others actively transported by astrocytes inflammation infection cancer can break down blood brain barrier Amy Warenda Czura Ph D 12 SCCC BIO130 Chapter 14 Lecture Slides Brain Anatomy on handout Brainstem 1 Medulla Oblongata details on handout 2 Pons details on handout Amy Warenda Czura Ph D 13 SCCC BIO130 Chapter 14 Lecture Slides 3 Midbrain Mesencephalon details on handout Diencephalon details on handout Amy Warenda Czura Ph D 14 SCCC BIO130 Chapter 14 Lecture Slides Cerebellum details on handout Ataxia loss of balance due to disruption in cerebellum e g alcohol Limbic System functional not anatomical separation Amy Warenda Czura Ph D 15 SCCC BIO130 Chapter 14 Lecture Slides located between cerebrum and diencephalon parts of both functions establishes emotional states and drives links conscious functions of cerebrum to autonomic functions of brainstem facilitates memory storage and retrieval Special regions 1 amygdala fight or flight initiates fear response links emotion with memory 2 hippocampus memory and learning 3 cingulate gyrus expressing emotions via gestures resolves mental conflicts Amy Warenda Czura Ph D 16 SCCC BIO130 Chapter 14 Lecture Slides Cerebrum details on handout Amy Warenda Czura Ph D 17 SCCC BIO130 Chapter 14 Lecture Slides Examples of integrative centers 1 Wernicke s area general interpretive area center of left hemisphere gives meaning to auditory or visual cues 2 Broca s area speech center left hemisphere superior to lateral sulcus coordinates motor controls for speech 3 Prefrontal cortex anterior frontal lobes prediction estimation and related emotions Amy Warenda Czura Ph D 18 SCCC BIO130 Chapter 14 Lecture Slides Association and integration areas all over cortex carry out all levels of thought but in general Left hemisphere language math logic Right hemisphere interpret sensory info generate emotions spatial visualization each hemispheres sends info to opposite side of body but each also has unique functions hemispheres communicate for whole thought if corpus callosum cut hemispheres work independently e g used as treatment for seizures Epileptic seizures abnormal electrical activity in brain causes loss of normal function Anencephaly brain fails to develop above mesencephalon fatal Cerebrovascular Accident CVA stroke loss of blood supply to brain neuron death occurs in minutes Individual cranial nerves and their innervations will be examined in detail in lab Amy Warenda Czura Ph D 19 SCCC BIO130 Chapter 14 Lecture Slides


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