MIT 9 916 - Attribution and Theory of Mind (22 pages)

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Attribution and Theory of Mind



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Attribution and Theory of Mind

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Pages:
22
School:
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Course:
9 916 - Modularity, Domain-specificity, and the Organization of Knowledge
Modularity, Domain-specificity, and the Organization of Knowledge Documents
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9 916 Attribution and Theory of Mind Today s Lecture Other s actions are more than spatiotemporal patterns they re ect and predict internal states How do people infer the causes of others actions Social Psychology Attribution Theory Developmental Psychology Theory of Mind Action Stable Transient Attribution Theory Action Common method Something about the person the situation Stable Kelley s ANOVA model External Internal Situation Object consistency distinctiveness consensus Jon laughs at the comic tonight Does everyone laugh at the comic Does Jon laugh at all comics Does Jon always laugh at this comic Attribution Theory Action Stable External Common method Something about the person the situation Internal Phenomena Situation Neglect a k a Insuf cient Discounting Fundamental Attribution Error Actor Observer Asymmetries own failures attributed to external causes Attribution Theory Action Stable External Common method Something about the person the situation Internal Flaws Assumes lots of data External causes Jon went on vacation to the Carribean because the weather is hot there Hot weather external cause but Jon didn t know it was hot but the weather was terrible that week Theory of Mind Action Stable Premack s Theory of Mind Transient Intention Belief Ability Desire Sarah Action prediction Figures removed due to copyright restrictions Theory of Mind The Sally Anne problem 100 Chance 50 Figures removed due to copyright restrictions 25 3 3 5 4 4 5 5 5 5 Percent using false belief 75 0 Age years Canada Action prediction based on false belief is different from the prediction based on reality Wimmer Perner 1983 Wellman Cross and Watson 2001 Samoa India Peru Figure by MIT OpenCourseWare African pygmy hunter gatherers Avis Harris 1999 Callaghan et al 2005 Theory of Mind Location transfer False contents 3rd P 1st P past Prediction Explanation False Belief Figures removed due to copyright restrictions False Photo 5 4 3 Belief Photo 2 1 Austism Typical 0 Figure by MIT OpenCourseWare Wellman et al 2001 Atance O Neill 2004 Zaitchik 1990 Leslie and Thaiss 1992 Theory of Mind Neural mechanism Susie parked her sports car in the driveway In the middle of the night Nathan moved her car into the garage to make room for his minivan Susie woke up early in the morning Figure removed due to copyright restrictions She expects to see in the drive a sportscar a minivan A volcano erupted on this Caribbean island three months ago Barren lava rock is all that remains Satellite photos show the island as it was before the eruption In the photos the island is covered in rock vegetation Saxe and Kanwisher 2003 Saxe 2006 etc Theory of Mind Neural mechanism Belief Photo Susie parked her sports car in the driveway In the middle of the night Nathan moved her car into the garage to make room for his minivan Susie woke up early in the morning Individual subjects She expects to see in the drive a sportscar a minivan A volcano erupted on this Caribbean island three months ago Barren lava rock is all that remains Satellite photos show the island as it was before the eruption In the photos the island is covered in rock vegetation Figure by MIT OpenCourseWare Theory of Mind Neural mechanism Reality Known Task Predict where the girl will look Results Figure removed due to copyright restrictions Lesions in 1 left lateral frontal 2 left TPJ 12 9 6 3 TP Frontal FB Control 0 Figure by MIT OpenCourseWare Samson et al 2004 Samson et al 2005 Theory of Mind Neural mechanism Reality Unknown Task Indicate where the object is Results Lesions in 1 left lateral frontal Figure removed due to copyright restrictions 2 left TPJ 12 9 6 3 TP Frontal FB Control 0 Figure by MIT OpenCourseWare Samson et al 2004 Samson et al 2005 Theory of Mind Development False Belief understanding isn t having a Theory of Mind Theory of Mind Development 1 Diverse Desires Which one will the girl choose Theory of Mind Development 1 Diverse Desires 2 Diverse Beliefs Where will the girl look for the dog Theory of Mind Development 1 Diverse Desires 2 Diverse Beliefs 3 Access Ignorance Does the girl know what s in the drawer Theory of Mind Development 1 Diverse Desires 2 Diverse Beliefs 3 Access Ignorance 4 False Belief What does the boy think is in the box Theory of Mind Development 1 Diverse Desires 2 Diverse Beliefs 3 Access Ignorance 4 False Belief 5 Hidden Emotion How does the boy really feel Theory of Mind Development 1 Diverse Desires 2 Diverse Beliefs 3 Access Ignorance 4 False Belief 5 Hidden Emotion 60 75 Kids 80 Replicated longitudinally 3 Years 4 Years 5 Years 15 12 9 6 3 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 1 2 1 None 0 Figure by MIT OpenCourseWare Wellman Liu 2004 Theory of Mind Non human primates Figures removed due to copyright restrictions Competitive Not Cooperative Santos Flombaum IP Origins of False Belief understanding MIT OpenCourseWare http ocw mit edu 9 916 Special Topics Social Animals Fall 2009 For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use visit http ocw mit edu terms


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