UCLA STAT 231 - Lecture3-Decision(cont) (19 pages)

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Lecture3-Decision(cont)



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Lecture3-Decision(cont)

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Pages:
19
School:
University of California, Los Angeles
Course:
Stat 231 - Pattern Recognition and Machine Learning
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3 Bayes Decision Theory Part II Prof A L Yuille Stat 231 Fall 2004 Lecture notes for Stat 231 Pattern Recognition and Machine Learning Bayes Decision Theory Part II 1 Two state case Bounds for Risk 2 Multiple Samples 3 ROC curve and Signal Detection Theory Lecture notes for Stat 231 Pattern Recognition and Machine Learning Two State Case Detect state Let loss function pay a penalty of 1 for misclassification 0 otherwise Risk becomes Error Bayes Risk becomes Bayes Error Want to put bounds on the error Lecture notes for Stat 231 Pattern Recognition and Machine Learning Error Bounds Use bounds to estimate errors Bayes error By We have with Lecture notes for Stat 231 Pattern Recognition and Machine Learning Chernoff and Bhatta I the Bhattarcharyya bound with Bhattarcharyya coefficient II the Chernoff bound With Chernoff Information Lecture notes for Stat 231 Pattern Recognition and Machine Learning Chernoff and Bhatta Chernoff bound is tighter than the Bhatta bound Both bounds are often good approximations see Duda Hart Stork pp 44 48 example 1 There is also a lower bound Bhatta and Chernoff will appear as exact errors rates for many samples Lecture notes for Stat 231 Pattern Recognition and Machine Learning Multiple Samples N Samples All from A or all from B Bombers or Birds Independence Assumption Lecture notes for Stat 231 Pattern Recognition and Machine Learning Multiple Samples Prior becomes unimportant for large N Task becomes easier Gaussian example Then where Lecture notes for Stat 231 Pattern Recognition and Machine Learning Probabilities of N Samples Posterior Distributions tend to Gaussians Central Limit Theorem Assumes independence or semi independence Results for N 0 1 2 3 50 200 Left to Right Top to Bottom Lecture notes for Stat 231 Pattern Recognition and Machine Learning Error Rates for Large N The error rate E N decreases exponentially with the number N of samples The Chernoff information Recall for a single sample we have Lecture notes for Stat 231 Pattern Recognition and Machine Learning ROC curves Receiver Operator Characteristics ROC curves are more general than Bayes risk Compare the performance of a human observer to Bayesian ideal for bright dim light test Suppose human does worse than Bayes risk then maybe this is only decision bias Lecture notes for Stat 231 Pattern Recognition and Machine Learning ROC Curves For two state problems the Bayes decision rule is where T depends on the priors and the loss function The observer may use the correct log likelihood ratio but have the wrong threshold E g the observer s loss function may penalize false negatives trigger shy or false positives trigger happy Lecture notes for Stat 231 Pattern Recognition and Machine Learning ROC Curves The ROC curve plots the proportion of correct responses hits against the false positives as the threshold T changes Requires altering the loss function of observers by rewards chocolate and penalties electric shocks The ROC curve gives information which is independent of the observer s loss function Lecture notes for Stat 231 Pattern Recognition and Machine Learning ROC Curves Plot hits against false positives For T large ve bottom left of curve T large ve top right of curve Tangent at 45 deg s at T 0 Lecture notes for Stat 231 Pattern Recognition and Machine Learning Example Boundary Detection 1 The boundaries of objects right usually occur where the image intensity gradient is large left Lecture notes for Stat 231 Pattern Recognition and Machine Learning Example Boundary Detection 2 Learn the probability distributions for intensity gradient on and off labeled edges Lecture notes for Stat 231 Pattern Recognition and Machine Learning Boundary Detection 3 Perform edge detection by log likelihood ratio test Lecture notes for Stat 231 Pattern Recognition and Machine Learning ROC Curves Special case the likelihood functions are Gaussians with different means but same variance Important in Psychology See Duda Hart Stork The Bayes Error can be computed from ROC curve ROC curves distinguish between Discriminability and Decision Bias Lecture notes for Stat 231 Pattern Recognition and Machine Learning Summary Bounds on Error rates for single data Bhatta and Chernoff Bounds Multiple Samples Error rates fall off exponentially with number of samples Chernoff coefficient ROC curves Signal Detection Theory Lecture notes for Stat 231 Pattern Recognition and Machine Learning


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