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Conflict Peacemaking Psychology 280 April 2nd 2007 1 The intentions of our country are entirely peaceful Yet we are also aware that other nations with their new weapons threaten us Thus we must defend ourselves against attack By so doing we shall protect our way of life and preserve peace Richardson 1960 2 Statistics z z z 110 million war related deaths in the 20th century Nuclear weapons stockpile equal to 700 times the explosive power used in WWII the Korean and Vietnam wars combined 1 4 million spent per minute on arms and armies Sivard 1996 3 Overview z Conflict What is it and why does it happen z Social Dilemmas Competition z Strategies for reducing conflict and increasing peacemaking 4 Conflict z Perception that one s actions or goals are incompatible with the actions and goals of others z z z Interpersonal Intergroup International 5 Prisoner s Dilemma z z z z 2 suspects separately questioned DA has limited evidence DA gives incentive for prisoner s to confess Outcomes dependent on each prisoner s choice Rapoport 1960 6 Prisoner s Dilemma Prisoner A No Confession Prisoner B A gets 1 year Confession A gets 0 years No Confession B gets 1 year A gets 10 years B gets 10 years A gets 5 years Confession B gets 0 years Rapoport 1960 B gets 5 years 7 Prisoner s Dilemma z Confess 5 years or no prison time Don t Confess 1 year or 10 years z Individual vs Group Outcome z 8 Threat to Each Country Country A Does Not Develop Weapons Develops Weapons Country B None None Does Not Develop Weapons None High High Moderate Develops Weapons None Moderate 9 Social Dilemma z A conflict in which the most beneficial action for an individual will if chosen by most people have harmful effects on everyone z Resource dilemma 10 Resource Dilemmas z Candy demonstration z Tragedy of the Commons z z Overgrazing of shared pasture lands Shared resources are wasted as a result of individual self interest Hardin 1968 11 Another Social Dilemma z z z A Beautiful Mind What comments did the characters make about competition and their strategies for winning How can this situation be interpreted in terms of a social dilemma 12 Resolving Social Dilemmas z Regulation z z z Smaller Groups z z z Laws or rules Choosing a leader More individual responsibility Take fair share Communication z z Group identity and norms Reduces mistrust 13 Conflict Use of Threats z Communication does not always help solve dilemmas z Deutsch and Krauss 1962 trucking game 14 Trucking Game Deutsch Krauss 1962 15 Conflict Summary z Social Dilemmas z Competition z Communication 16 Peacemaking z Negotiation z z Integrative Solution z z Both sides make offers and counter offers as a means of coming to an agreement Most Least important issues for each side How good are people at this z z z Not Very Trust Mediators 17 Negotiation z Cultural assumptions z z z z z z Business like attitude vs trusting relationship Communication style Written vs oral contracts Current vs historical traditional information Representative latitude Time 18 Peacemaking z Common External Threats z z I couldn t help but to say to Mr Gorbachev just think how easy his task and mine might be if suddenly there was a threat from another planet Ronald Regan 1983 Superordinate Identity and Goals z Robber s Cave Lanzetta 1955 19 Peacemaking z Graduated Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension Reduction GRIT designed to de escalate international tensions z z z z Announcing a conciliatory intent Conciliatory acts Maintaining retaliatory capability Reciprocates any conciliatory act 20 Summary z Peacemaking z z z z z Negotiation Integrative Solution Common External Threat Superordinate identity and goals GRIT 21

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