# Hiram CPSC 356 - Relational Algebra (28 pages)

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**View the full content.**## Relational Algebra

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## Relational Algebra

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- Pages:
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- School:
- Hiram College
- Course:
- Cpsc 356 - Database Design

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Relational Algebra CB Chapter 5 1 CPSC 356 Database Ellen Walker Hiram College Relational Algebra Mathematical language for operating on relations Each operator takes one or more relations as input and produces one relation as output Relational algebra operators can be implemented as functions in a programming language A relational algebra expression indicates which operators to use in which order Example Relation PhoneBook First Last Dept Email Phone Title Louis Oliphant CPSC Louis 5275 Asst Ellen Walker CPSC WalkerEL 5250 Prof Laura VanWormer PHYS VanwormerLA 5249 Prof Cathy Mansor WEC MansorCN 5957 Dean Brad Goodner BIOL GoodnerBW 5260 Prof Another Relation Dept Name Building CPSC Colton WEC Hinsdale PHYS Gerstacker BIOL Gerstacker MGMT Hinsdale Selection condition The output relation has all rows of the input relation that satisfy the condition Title prof Phonebook First Last Dept Email Laura VanWormer PHYS VanwormerLA 5249 Prof Ellen Walker CPSC WalkerEL 5250 Prof Brad Goodner BIOL 5260 Prof GoodnerBW Phone Title Valid Conditions Basic condition Dept CS First Last attribute compare to const attribute compare to attribute Combination of conditions using AND OR or NOT Note All attributes must come from the relation in the selection Pseudocode for Selection Select input relation condition output rel Do for every tuple in the input relation If the tuple satisfies the condition Copy the tuple to the output relation Time O number of tuples in input relation Projection attributes Create a new relation with only the listed attributes in it last phone PhoneBook Last Phone Oliphant 5275 Walker 5250 VanWormer 5249 Mansor 5957 Goodner 5260 Relations Have No Duplicates dept PhoneBook Only 4 rows even though PhoneBook had 5 Dept CPSC PHYS WEC BIOL Pseudocode for Projection Project input relation attribute list output rel Do for every tuple in the input relation Do for every attribute in the input relation If the attribute is in the attribute list copy the value to the output relation Remove duplicates in the output relation Time O number of tuples in relation time for duplicate removal Combining Select Project first last title prof PhoneBook First Last Laura VanWormer Ellen Walker Brad Goodner Remember A Relation is a Set A set is an unordered collection of unique elements Set S 1 2 3 a b c a c b 1 is an element of S A subset of a set is another set whose elements all come from the original set a b is a subset of a c b 1 2 3 is a subset of 1 2 3 1 2 4 is not a subset of 1 2 3 the empty set is a subset of every set Basic Set Operations Union the set of all elements in either or both original sets 1 2 union 2 3 1 2 3 Intersection the set of all elements in both original sets only 1 2 intersect 2 3 2 Set Difference the set of all elements in the first but not the second set 1 2 2 3 1 Applying to Relations Relations must be comparable Same set of attributes in each relation Union all tuples Intersection all matching tuples Set Difference all tuples from first but not second Basic Operation Examples R1 dept PhoneBook R2 name as dept Dept Rename attribute to be same R1 R2 R2 in this case R1 R2 R1 in this case R1 R2 empty set R2 R1 Dept MGMT R1 R2 Dept Dept CPSC CPSC PHYS PHYS WEC WEC BIOL BIOL MGMT Another Set Operation Cartesian product a set of ordered pairs where each contains one element from each original set 1 2 3 x a b 1 a 1 b 2 a 2 b 3 a 3 b For Relations create a new relation with every combination of tuples Cartesian Product X dept last PhoneBook X Dept Last Dept Name Bldg Oliphant CPSC CPSC Colton Walker CPSC CPSC Colton VanWormer PHYS CPSC Colton Mansor WEC CPSC Colton Goodner BIOL CPSC Colton Oliphant CPSC WEC Hinsdale Walker CPSC WEC Hinsdale VanWormer PHYS WEC Hinsdale Mansor WEC WEC Hinsdale Goodner BIOL WEC Hinsdale Oliphant CPSC PHYS Colton Walker CPSC PHYS Colton Etc Pseudocode for Cartesian Product Product relation1 relation2 output rel Do for every tuple in relation1 Do for every tuple in relation2 Build a row with all attributes from both relations Add it to the output relation Time O number of tuples in relation1 number of tuples in relation 2 This is the most expensive operation in relational algebra Join Combines X and Select Theta Join any condition R1 X R2 Equijoin equality condition R1 X R2 Natural Join equality condition R1 X R2 Project to remove one copy of each equal attribute Left or Right Outer Join Include all tuples from left or right side even if they don t have a match Na ve Pseudocode for Join Join rel1 rel2 condition output rel product rel1 rel2 tmp select tmp condition output rel Time Same as Cartesian Product To keep time down keep the size of the relations down we ll look at this later Let s Try Some Examples What are the first and last names of all professors who don t work in Hinsdale What are the telephone extensions of people who work in Hinsdale Which buildings contain people whose phone numbers are between 5000 and 5200 List the Dept Name Building Name and phone numbers for All departments even those without phone numbers First and last names of all professors who don t work in Hinsdale Select all professors Title Prof Phonebook Select Departments not in Hinsdale Bldg Hinsdale Dept Connect these relations where depts match Title Prof Phonebook X Dept Name Bldg Hinsdale Dept One project to get the final result first last Title Prof Phonebook X Dept Name Bldg Hinsdale Dept Telephone extensions of people who work in Hinsdale Select Departments in Hinsdale and project to just Dept to make the table smaller Name Bldg Hinsdale Dept Join with PhoneBook to get only those in the right departments Name Bldg Hinsdale Dept X Dept Name PhoneBook Project to get just the extensions Phone Name Bldg Hinsdale Dept X Dept Name PhoneBook Buildings with phone numbers between 5000 and 5300 Select to get phone numbers from 5000 to 5300 and Project to have only the dept attribute dept 5000 Phone 5300 Phone PhoneBooks Join with Dept to associate department names with buildings dept 5000 Phone 5300 Phone PhoneBooks X dept name Dept Project to get just the building names bldg dept 5000 Phone 5300 Phone PhoneBooks X dept name Dept Dept Name Building and phone numbers for all departments Join to include info from ALL departments This requires an outer join Dept X name dept PhoneBook Project to get the right attributes name bldg phone Dept X name dept PhoneBook Aggregation Operations that allow you to combine all the values in a table column in some way COUNT SUM AVG MIN MAX

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