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An Age of Nationalism and Realism,



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Chapter 22 An Age of Nationalism and Realism 1850 1871 Timeline The France of Napoleon III Louis Napoleon the 2nd Napoleonic Empire Louis Napoleon Toward the Second Empire National Assembly rejected his call for revision of constitution to allow him to stand for reelection Responded by seizing government by force Restored universal male suffrage and asked that the empire be restored Assumed the title of Napoleon III December 2 1852 The Second Napoleonic Empire Authoritarian government Early domestic policies Economic prosperity Reconstruction of Paris Baron Haussmann Liberalization of the regime in the face of opposition Foreign Policy The Mexican Adventure Sent troops to Mexico in 1861 to intervene in struggle between Mexican liberals and conservatives French forces remained after order had been restored Installed Archduke Maximilian of Austria as emperor in 1864 Maximilian overthrown and executed in 1867 Foreign policy Crimean War The Ottoman Empire Disintegration of the Ottoman Empire Encroachment of the Russian Empire Loss of territory The War Russian demand to protect Christian shrines Privilege already given to the French Ottomans refuse Russia invades Moldavia and Wallachia Turks declare war October 4 1853 Britain and France declare war on Russia March 28 1854 Destroys the Concert of Europe War ends in March 1856 Political effects of the war Map 22 1 Decline of the Ottoman Empire The Crimean War National Unification Italy Kingdom of Piedmont Victor Emmanuel II 1849 1878 of Kingdom of Piedmont Count Camillo di Cavour 1810 1861 Napoleon III s alliance with Piedmont 1858 War with Austria 1859 Northern states join Piedmont Guiseppi Garibaldi 1807 1882 The Red Shirts Invasion of Kingdom of the Two Sicilies 1860 Kingdom of Italy March 17 1861 Annexation of Venetia 1866 Annexation of Rome 1870 Map 22 2 The Unification of Italy National Unification Germany William I 1861 1888 Wanted military reforms Otto von Bismarck 1815 1898 Reorganization of the army Realpolitik The Danish War 1864 Schleswig and Holstein Joint administration with Austria Austro Prussian War 1866 Austrian defeat at K niggratz July 3 1866 North German Confederation Military agreements with Prussia Franco Prussian War 1870 1871 Dispute with France over the throne of Spain French declaration of war July 15 1870 Battle of Sedan September 2 1870 Siege of Paris capitulates January 28 1871 Southern German states join Northern German Confederation William I proclaimed kaiser January 8 1871 of the Second German Empire Map 22 3 The Unification of Germany Map 22 4 Europe in 1871 The Austrian Empire Toward a Dual Monarchy Ausgleich Compromise 1867 Creates a dual monarchy German and Magyars dominate minorities Francis Joseph Emperor of Austria King of Hungary Some things in held in common Other minorities Map 22 5 Ethnic Groups in the Dual Monarchy Imperial Russia Alexander II 1855 1881 Emancipation of serfs March 3 1861 Problems with emancipation Zemstvos local assemblies Growing dissatisfaction Assassination of Alexander II 1881 Alexander III 1881 1894 Return to traditional methods of repression Great Britain The Victorian Age Did not experience revolts in 1848 Reforms Economic growth Queen Victoria 1837 1901 reflected the age Benjamin Disraeli 1804 1881 Extension of voting rights Reform Act 1867 William Gladstone first administration 1868 1874 Liberal reforms Education Act of 1870 Nation Building North America The United States Civil War and Reunion Differences between North and South The cotton economy Election of Abraham Lincoln secession of South Carolina 1860 Civil War 1861 1865 North has the advantage Grant and Lee and the war s end Emergence of the Canadian Nation By 1800 want more autonomy By 1837 several groups rebelled The Dominion of Canada 1867 Map 22 6 The United States The West and the Civil War Industrialization on the Continent Continental industrialization comes of age 1850 1871 Mechanization of textile and cotton industries Growth of iron industries Elimination of trade barriers Government support and financing Marx and Marxism Karl Marx 1818 1883 and Friedrich Engels 1820 1895 The Communist Manifesto 1848 History is the history of class struggle Stages of history End result of history is a classless society After 1848 Revolutions Marx went to London Marx Das Kapital International Working Men s Association 1864 Internal problems A New Age of Science Development of the steam engine led to science of relationship between heat and mechanical energy Louis Pasteur germ theory of disease Dmitri Mendeleyev atomic weights Michael Faraday generator Science and Materialism Charles Darwin and the Theory of Organic Evolution Charles Darwin 1809 1882 On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection 1859 All plants and animals have evolved over a long period of time Those who survived had adapted to the environment The Descent of Man 1871 Ideas highly controversial gradually accepted A Revolution in Health Care Pasteur and Germs New Surgical Practices Joseph Lister New Public Health Care Measures Public hygiene New Medical Schools Women and Medical Schools Elizabeth Blackwell 1821 1910 Science and the Study of Society Auguste Comte 1798 1857 System of Positive Philosophy Positive knowledge Primacy of sociology Realism in Literature and Art The Realistic Novel Rejected Romanticism Gustave Flaubert 1821 1880 Madame Bovary 1857 William Thackeray 1811 1863 Vanity Fair 1848 Charles Dickens 1812 1870 Realism in Art Gustave Courbet 1819 1877 Portrayal of everyday life Jean Francois Millet 1814 1875 Scenes from rural life Music The Twilight of Romanticism Franz Liszt 1811 1886 New German School Richard Wagner 1813 1883 Development of a national opera Ring of the Nibelung Discussion Questions How did the Crimean War differ from previous European wars What role did liberalism play in the unification of Italy How did Bismarck use war as a tool of national unification What were the goals the realist writers Why did they reject Romanticism How did nationalism shape the music of Liszt and Wagner Web Links France Second Republic Crimean War Society Italian Unification Primary Sources German Unification Primary Sources Atlas of the German Empire The Valley of the Shadow Two Communities in the American Civil War


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