NJIT HRM 601 - An Analytical Study On Scientific Management (16 pages)

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An Analytical Study On Scientific Management



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An Analytical Study On Scientific Management

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Pages:
16
School:
New Jersey Institute of Technology
Course:
Hrm 601 - Organizational Behavior
Organizational Behavior Documents
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An Analytical Study On Scientific Management HRM 601 Akeem Adebiyi Adeyemi Ersal Aslam Alan Cohen Sangram Singh Jolanta Soltis The fastest way from point A to point B is a straight line Scientifically it is a proven fact Mathematically it is the shortest distance therefore takes the less time The travel of a straight line is an absolute model of efficiency at its purest Frederick Winslow Taylor could not have agreed more Taylor was a firm believer in using science and raw data to determine the most efficient course of action Guessing was not allowed Through research and meticulous analysis only then could a process be established fully grounded in scientific fact It is these principles that allowed Taylor to establish scientific management a management theory used to improve productivity Frederick Taylor known as the father of modern management was born into an affluent Philadelphia family and studied engineering at Steven s Institute of Technology in New Jersey Taylor began his career as an apprentice foreman and common laborer He would quickly advance to chief engineer His direct observations of men at work led him to develop what we would call motivation theory although this is a psychology term that would not be imported into the management vocabulary until later Taylor called it scientific management Taylor s own point of view although benign towards workers saw human labor very much analogous to machine work something to be engineered to achieve efficiency His theories on management are promoted worldwide and maybe took stronger root in Japan than in the U S or Europe and would be controversial at home mgmtguru com In order to understand how Taylor s scientific management revolutionized industry and helped shape modern organization one needs to understand what came before him The industrial revolution had been underway for nearly 100 years before Taylor took his first job as an engineer at Philadelphia s Midvale Steel Company in the Fall of 1878 Nelson p 29 Most histories of the industrial revolution focus on technological developments such as interchangeable parts steam power and the assembly line Very little has been written about how nineteenth century plants were organized and managerial power was delegated In virtually all industries regardless of the types of manufacturing operations taking place the foreman was for all intents and purposes the manufacturer Nelson p 4 The foreman had near absolute authority over the workers He was responsible for hiring and firing personnel training them arbitrating grievances promoting and demoting workers and enforcing the manufacturer s personnel policies regarding work hours personal appearance and rules of conduct In many industries the piece work system was common The foreman set the wages using a rule of thumb method Nelson p 8 The manufacturer for whom the foreman worked usually watched the payroll very closely When piece workers were so productive that they earned more than the prevailing day wage the manufacturer would order the piece rate cut removing any incentive to produce more Combined with the difficult and unsafe work environments in many factories there was a more or less permanent state of labor management strife Strikes and violence were common Nelson p 9 In 1903 Taylor wrote Shop Management where he discussed his management principles In it Taylor theorized that workers were inefficient because they tended to ration their workload or work less than they could to prevent the job tasks from running out resulting in a loss of wages Management also failed to structure work effectively and to provide appropriate incentives mgmtguru com Taylor would later elaborate on his management theories in 1911 when he published The Principles of Scientific Management Scientific management consisted of four basic principles 1 Replace rule of thumb work methods with methods based on a scientific study of the tasks 2 Scientifically select and then train teach and develop the workman 3 Provide detailed instruction and supervision of each worker in their given task 4 Divide work nearly equally between managers and workers so that the managers apply scientific management principles to planning the work and the workers actually perform the tasks These principles clearly defined the workforce Workers were charged with the physical labor and management was given legitimate authority to discern how the organization should be run Scientific management revolutionized industry because it explains how to increase production by working smarter not harder Up until that time increasing output meant more hours more employees more raw materials and more costs Scientific management uses basic logic to show how standardization productivity and division of labor painted a picture of efficiency that resonates today Not only does scientific management aid a company to accomplish its goals but it improves the quality of life of the workforce creating a win win situation for all parties involved Creating standards is at the core of why scientific management is a beneficial organizational model Standards are universally accepted guidelines that help govern procedures and courses of action for given scenarios A common bottleneck that organizations face is rule of thumb or guess work when it comes to dealing with issues by not having a clear path to follow Having a standard in place would eliminate this uncertainty and allow the wheels to continue moving forward The standard should also be looked at as a benchmark a level or point of reference from which measurements can be made Measurements allow for an analysis of productivity They are used to identify how efficiently employees processes and procedures met or exceed the standard The system s base was research and experimentation to replace the old rule of thumb Wrege p 255 Research under scientific management is the collection of raw data Research is one of the most crucial components of developing a standard The raw data gathered can be measured It s something tangible something that can be accounted for Two classic examples of scientific management increasing productivity and benefiting the workforce are the pig iron and shoveling experiments Taylor conducted Pig iron is a term used when melted iron is allowed to flow into a gridiron of damp sand creating bars that can then be handled Using time study the study used to reduce the number of motions in performing a task Taylor was able to gather the raw


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