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Isaacs et al. 2009. Maximizing arthropod mediated



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REVIEWS REVIEWS REVIEWS 196 Maximizing arthropod mediated ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes the role of native plants Rufus Isaacs Julianna Tuell Anna Fiedler Mary Gardiner and Doug Landis Beneficial arthropods including native bees predators and parasitoids provide valuable ecosystem services worth 8 billion to US agriculture each year These arthropod mediated ecosystem services AMES include crop pollination and pest control which help to maintain agricultural productivity and reduce the need for pesticide inputs Maximizing survival and reproduction of beneficial arthropods requires provision of pollen and nectar resources that are often scarce in modern agricultural landscapes Increasingly native plants are being evaluated for this purpose Native plants can outperform recommended non natives and also provide local adaptation habitat permanency and support of native biodiversity We predict that the success of insect conservation programs using flowering plants to increase AMES on farmland will depend on landscape context with the greatest success in landscapes of moderate complexity Reintegration of native plants into agricultural landscapes has the potential to support multiple conservation goals and will require the collaboration of researchers conservation educators and native plant experts Front Ecol Environ 2009 7 4 196 203 doi 10 1890 080035 published online 26 Aug 2008 C onservation of beneficial arthropods in agricultural landscapes is increasingly justified based on the value of the services they provide to society The annual value of natural enemies and native pollinators to agriculture has recently been estimated at nearly 8 billion in the US alone Losey and Vaughn 2006 These arthropod mediated ecosystem services AMES include biological control of insect pests worth 4 5 billion and pollination of crops worth 3 1 billion each year Despite the impressive economic value of these services there is widespread concern over both the current and future status of beneficial arthropods Farm intensification urbanization habitat fragmentation climate change diseases and pesticides all threaten the services provided to agriculture by these arthropods Allen Wardell et al 1998 Kremen et al In a nutshell Insects and other arthropods provide valuable arthropodmediated ecosystem services AMES in agricultural landscapes including pollination and pest control Beneficial arthropods require access to pollen nectar and the shelter provided by flowering plants The use of native perennial plants to enhance AMES has many advantages including their adaptation to local conditions and the restoration of local biodiversity Development of locally adapted conservation plantings by teams comprised of scientists entrepreneurs and educators will enhance their adoption in developed and developing countries Department of Entomology Michigan State University East Lansing MI isaacsr msu edu www fr ontiersinecology or g 2002 NRC 2007 Recognition of this situation has stimulated investigations around the globe addressing how best to conserve and enhance arthropod diversity in intensively managed farmland Landis et al 2000 Gurr et al 2004 Samways 2007 Whittingham 2007 If conservation programs aimed at enhancing agricultural sustainability are to deliver the increases in AMES they are designed to provide there is an urgent need to determine how best to manipulate agricultural landscapes to support beneficial arthropods Coordinating such efforts so that multiple services are enhanced is expected to improve the likelihood of adoption by farmers Gurr et al 2003 Olson and W ckers 2007 and quantifying additional benefits for native biodiversity and cultural services may further increase society s willingness to support such programs Fiedler et al 2008 Based on our recent findings Fiedler and Landis 2007 a b Tuell et al in press we present a brief synthesis of the role that native flowering plants can play in sustaining pollinators predators and parasitoids in agricultural landscapes We also discuss key areas of research needed to facilitate the use of native plants in conservation programs with the goal of providing economic benefits to farmers through AMES Challenges to survival of bees predators and parasitoids in farmland There have been dramatic changes in most US farm landscapes over the past 25 years and these trends are expected to continue or accelerate in North America and around the world Farmland is being encroached upon by urban areas and sold for development Greene and Harlin The Ecological Society of America R Isaacs et al a Arthropod mediated ecosystem services b c 197 Figure 1 Beneficial insects on native Midwest prairie plant flowers a syrphid fly Sphaerophoria sp on shrubby cinquefoil Potentilla fructicosa b soldier beetle Chauliognathus pennsylvanicus on boneset Eupatorium perfoliatum and c a leafcutter bee Megachile sp on New England aster Aster novae angliae 1995 thereby reducing the area available for producing food or raising livestock Invasive plant species are limiting land suitable for animal pasture Pimentel et al 2000 and global climate change is expected to further disrupt the links between soils crops and climate that have driven regional crop production practices Ramankutty et al 2002 The recent focus on biofuels as a partial solution to dependence on oil in the US Pimentel and Patzek 2005 shows how land use can quickly change in response to new market opportunities or policies Demand for corn derived biofuels has caused a rapid increase in land planted to corn in the Midwest NASS 2007 Gardiner et al in press have shown that this change has caused an associated decrease in landscape diversity in turn limiting biocontrol services in nearby soybean fields Moreover these changes are expected to intensify application of pesticides to cropland compounding the detrimental effects on beneficial insects and non target plants Together these changes are causing agricultural landscapes to further diverge from conditions favorable to beneficial arthropods and shift toward landscapes characterized by low structural and floral diversity that provide limited resources across large areas Comparisons of insect records from Europe before and after 1980 indicate that the abundance of bees and syrphid flies has declined with a concurrent reduction in the abundance of out crossing plant species dependent on specialist bee species Biesmeijer et al 2006 This example highlights the link between


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