UA ECOL 437 - Lecture Notes (26 pages)

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Lecture Notes



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Lecture Notes

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Pages:
26
School:
University of Arizona
Course:
Ecol 437 - Vertebrate Physiology
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Lecture 15 16 Oct 2003 Chapter 11 Movement and Behavior Vertebrate Physiology ECOL 437 University of Arizona Fall 2003 instr Kevin Bonine t a Bret Pasch Vertebrate Physiology 437 1 Behavior Initiation CH11 2 Announcements exam next Tuesday seminars etc 3 Jokes from the audience Fig 11 12 Randall et al 2002 Chapter Eleven Behavior Initiation Animal Behavior Neurobiology Complex Bring together nervous endocrine muscular systems etc Respond to situation s Parallel Processing Reflexes Learned Plasticity Complicated Neuronal Circuitry Simple Reflexes basis of neuronal circuitry Reflex Arc Stereotypic Behavior e g stretch reflex patellar tendon Tonic tension in muscle Important for maintenance of posture via negative feedback Only 2 neurons required monosynaptic reflex Stretch receptor activates 1a afferent neuron Alpha motor neuron activates quadriceps Sherwood 1997 see 11 1 in Eckert Simple Reflexes Stretch receptor muscle spindle organ contains intrafusal fibers as opposed to extrafusal Sensitive to stretch stretch APs Need to be reset for new muscle length Gamma motor neurons innervate spindle 1 1a afferent neuron 2 Alpha motor neuron 3 Gamma motor neuron Sherwood 1997 see 11 1 in Eckert c Contracted muscle without reset muscle spindle Simple Reflexes Other neurons become involved as well 1a afferents inhibit the antagonist muscle Knee decision flexor hamstring Conscious to bend leg etc Fig 11 2 Randall et al 2002 Limb Law of NerveSpecific Energy Action Potentials and Graded Potentials don t convey specific information Rather the geographic connections summation of different inputs and modulation are important for correct response dorsal ventr al Fig 11 12 Randall et al 2002 Sensory Neurons Individual Receptors Variable Process thousands of inputs to generate scene p 441 Randall et al 2002 Fig 11 13 Randall et al 2002 Sensory Networks and Lateral Inhibition Helps define edges in vision 11 14 Fig 11 14 Randall et al 2002 Horseshoe crab More APs from single ommatidia without lateral influence 11 14 Fig 11 14 Randall et al 2002 Vertebrate Visual System Retina Visual Cortex contralateral 11 17 ipsilateral Layers of cells in between Fig 11 17 Randall et al 2002 Convergence and Divergence Processing in Retina and in Brain Fig 11 18 Randall et al 2002 1st 2nd 3rd Order Photoreceptor s Lateral Interxns Horizontal Cells Bipolar Cells Amacrine Cells Ganglion Cells optic nerve 11 18 To Brain Fig 11 19 Randall et al 2002 activation Dark Current 1st Ord er hyperpolarize in light Hyper or DePolarizing Convergence Divergence Lateral inhibition 2nd Order minimal in fovea acuity Outside fovea many photoreceptors per ganglion 3rd Ord er 11 19 Visual Receptive Field Size and area innervating a given ganglion cell 1 or 2 photoreceptors 2mm diameter Fig 11 20 Randall et al 2002 Lots lateral inhibition 11 20 2 parts Center Surround 2 kinds On or Off Visual Receptive Field Center Surround On or Off receptor horizontal bipolar ganglion Fig 11 21 Randall et al 2002 Mediated by bipolar cells that either hyper or depolarize Simple Cells in Visual Cortex respond to linear arrangements of receptive fields in retina On example 11 24 Fig 11 24 Randall et al 2002 On example 11 23 Fig 11 23 Randall et al 2002 On example convergence Fig 11 24 Randall et al 2002 Fig 11 23 Randall et al 2002 11 23 Integrate information from many simple cells 11 25 Fig 11 25 Randall et al 2002 Can detect movement orientation Process and Respond 1117 Fig 11 17 Randall et al 2002 11 Fig 11 22 Randall et al 2002 Cortical Maps Fig 11 27 Randall et al 2002 1127 One eye into monkey visual cortex Behavioral Examples Echolocation in bats High frequency sound pulses Large auditory center in brain pulse as energetic Sound as jet 100m overhead or 20x jackhammer Sensitive auditory ossicles desensitized briefly as sound pulse emitted Sound intensity drops as square of distance return signal weak tonotopic maps in space 11 9 Fig 11 9 Randall et al 2002 Behavioral Examples Navigation via Magnetic Fields Pelagic Whales Homing Pigeons Cave salamanders Bacteria etc often a redundant system Magnetite particles Fe3O4 orient with magnetic field Receptors detect processed in CNS CPG central pattern generator neuronal network producing repetitive output Walking swimming flying breathing Toad walking with no afferents awkward flaccid muscles Sensory feedback Higher centers can override Some patterns at level of spinal cord if stimulate initially cats on treadmill End


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