UF PSY 4930 - Psychotherapy (68 pages)

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Psychotherapy



Previewing pages 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 32, 33, 34, 35, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68 of actual document.

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Psychotherapy

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Pages:
68
School:
University of Florida-Gainesville
Course:
Psy 4930 - Psychology and Law
Unformatted text preview:

Introduction to Psychotherapy with Children Families PSY 4930 Melissa Stern October 17th 2006 PLEASE NOTE THE FINAL EXAM WILL BE HELD IN CLASS ON DECEMBER 5th We will not be having lecture that day just the final exam Second Note We will be having lecture after the second exam Part of it will be a guest speaker so please plan on staying the whole time Learning Objectives What is child psychotherapy and how does it differ from other treatments Who is a good candidate for child adolescent psychotherapy How does child psychotherapy differ from adult psychotherapy What are the factors in child psychotherapy that bring about behavioral and personality change What are the primary stages in the psychotherapy process and what are the issues dealt with at each stage Learning Objectives What kind of ethical dilemmas does one confront when engaging in child psychotherapy What empirical support is there for the effectiveness of child psychotherapy What are the Myths of Psychotherapy How does and understanding of these Myths lead to better research Approaches to Child Treatment Overview Approaches to the treatment of behavioral or psychological problems in children behavioral operant classical conditioning cognitive behavioral psychopharmacological family therapies group therapies residential treatments And others Characteristics of Psychotherapy Most treatments discussed could be viewed as psychotherapy in the most general sense Psychotherapy is commonly thought of as an interpersonal process involving a verbal and or nonverbal interchange between a patient who exhibits psychological problems and a professional who wishes to be of help These approaches are usually based on a Medical Model of psychology Characteristics of Psychotherapy Within this context the therapist attempts to gain an understanding of the patient s problems utilize the nature of the relationship and various therapeutic techniques to facilitate constructive personality and behavior change Psychoanalytic and Interpersonal approaches would fall into this category Children versus Adults in Psychotherapy Some argue that the basic principles involved in child treatment are similar to those involved in the treatment of adults The major difference between working with adults and children is the need to alter therapy techniques to accommodate the child s level of cognitive and emotional development 5 y o with PTSD Children versus Adults in Psychotherapy Important child differences that impact treatment conceptually more concrete linguistically less competent less introspective less likely to see themselves as displaying difficulties less likely to see the value of talking about problems often less motivated to participate in ongoing treatment and less likely to share common treatment goals with the therapist Children versus Adults in Psychotherapy Two most important issues to consider in psychological treatment of children 1 Level of cognitive development 2 Level of dependence on the parents Level of Cognitive Development Greater emphasis be placed on non verbal communication and interactions Child psychotherapy is often carried out within the context of play activities rather than involving the level of verbal discourse characterizing adult or even adolescent psychotherapy Play is often considered a major vehicle for change in child psychotherapy Level of Cognitive Development As the age of the child increases there is typically a corresponding increase in the degree to which verbal interchanges predominate during therapy sessions Even with older children however the use of games which serve as a medium for therapeutic interaction and expression is common Can often be a useful buffer in therapy sessions Playing checkers while talking Level of Dependence on Others Therapist deals with persons e g parents caregivers teachers other than the patient more than when working with adult patients Children seldom refer themselves for treatment Referral may reflect the child s need for treatment OR the parents level of tolerance for what is essentially normal although possibly problematic child behavior Level of Dependence on Others Intervention efforts may be focused on the child s problematic behavior AND OR factors such as parenting stress parenting skills or perceived lack of competence in the parenting role which may contribute to strain on the parent child relationship Level of Dependence on Others Parents may also influence the outcome of child treatment With adults continuing in therapy is related to variables such as the patient s relationship with the therapist current levels of patient distress whether the patient feels that therapeutic gains are being made With children whether the child stays in treatment often has as much to do with parental as with child factors Level of Dependence on Others Parental family factors affecting child treatment parent schedules the degree to which parent s view the child s therapy as having credibility all they do is play the nature of the parent s relationship with the child s therapist the extent to which the child s problem behavior is changing as quickly as the parent expects Child therapists must work with other members of the family particularly parents to a much greater degree and in different ways than is usually required in adultoriented treatment The Complexity of Child Treatment Child psychopathology is often related to factors operative within the family ongoing parental conflict maladaptive communication interaction patterns existing within the family Thus it is frequently necessary to deal with other family members in order to effect therapeutic changes in the child Basic Principles of Psychotherapy Many of the basic principles of psychotherapy are the same for adults and children Factors to consider in the application of principles the child s immaturity dependent status of the child Elements of Change Two common goals in child treatment resolution of the presenting problem that resulted in the child being referred bringing about general personality change to reduce the likelihood of the child developing problems in the future How are such changes made brings about such changes What Elements of Change Tuma 1989 has suggested that therapeutic changes are attributable to General Factors certain aspects of the therapy relationship Specific Factors various therapy techniques that may be employed within the context of the therapy relationship General Factors in Psychotherapy General


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