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Avogadro Scale Engineering & Fabricational Complexity



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PLEX CO Y MIT Avogadro Scale Engineering Fabricational Complexity NSF CBA Program Review MIT Cambridge MA October 12 2006 Molecular Machine Jacobson Group jacobson media mit edu Complexity vs Size red blood cell 5 m SEM DNA proteins nm Simple molecules 1nm diatom 30 m bacteria 1 m 10 10 10 9 10 8 10 7 10 6 m 10 5 10 4 10 3 10 2 SOI transistor width 0 12 m Semiconductor Nanocrystal 1 nm Nanotube Transistor Dekker Circuit design Copper wiring width 0 1 m IBM PowerPC 750TM Microprocessor 7 56mm 8 799mm 6 35 106 transistors DNA Synthesis Chemical Synthesis Biological Synthesis Solid Phase Synthesis Error Rate 300 Seconds 1 102 Per step Error Correcting Polymerase Error Rate 1 106 100 Steps per second 3 5 proofreading exonuclease Beese et al 1993 Science 260 352 355 http www med upenn edu naf services catalog99 pdf http www biochem ucl ac uk bsm xtal teach repl klenow html Resources for Exponential Scaling Resources which increase the complexity of a system exponentially with a linear addition of resources 1 Quantum Phase Space 2 Error Correcting Fabrication 3 Fault Tolerant Hardware Architectures 4 Fault Tolerant Software or Codes Complexity Per Unit Cost f FAB I Non Error Correcting A G T C n f FAB p ln m II Triply Error Correcting A G T C 2 f FAB 3 3 p 1 p p 140 f FAB 3 f FAB P 0 9 120 0 25 80 0 2 60 0 15 40 0 1 20 0 05 50 100 150 n 200 250 300 ln m A G T C A G T C n 300 P 0 85 0 3 100 3 3n f FAB 3 f FAB 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 50 100 n 150 200 0 86 0 88 0 92 0 94 p 0 96 0 98 Deinococcus radiodurans 3 2 Mb 4 10 Copies of Genome D radiodurans 1 75 million rads 0 h D radiodurans 1 75 million rads 24 h Nature Biotechnology 18 85 90 January 2000 D radiodurans E coli Uniformed Services University of the Health 1 7 Million Rads 17kGy 200 DS breaks 25 Thousand Rads 2 or 3 DS breaks http www ornl gov hgmis publicat microbial image3 html photos provided by David Schwartz University of Wisconsin Madison Synthetic Self Replication Griffith S et al Robotics Self replication



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