Plant Systematics Laboratory #5




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5 1 Plant Systematics Laboratory 5 EVOLUTION AND DIVERSITY OF WOODY AND SEED PLANTS OBJECTIVES 1 2 3 To be able to recognize and name on sight the major apomorphies of the groups described and evaluate their adaptive significance To be able to recognize and name on sight all taxa listed below in bold type To be able to recognize and name on sight the major organs or structural components of these taxa including knowing all terms listed in bold type Eustele LIGNOPHYTA WOODY PLANT APOMORPHIES Observe the cross section of a young stem before wood formation of a seed plant Note the eustele a single ring of vascular bundles each bundle consisting of an inner group of xylem tracherary elements and an outer group of phloem sieve elements Observe a eustele identifying and labeling vascular bundles xylem phloem cortex pith and epidermis Note at higher magnification one of the vascular bundles illustrating a few tracheary elements of the xylem sieve elements of the phloem and fibers if present Check off these terms from the illustrations in your book Wood Study the slide of a young woody stem cross section Note the incipient vascular cambium consisting of specialized cells that divide and form secondary tissue Check off the terms from the illustrations in your book primary xylem primary phloem vascular bundle vascular cambium cortex and pith Study the slide of an older woody stem cross section Observe the vascular cambium which has deposited layers of secondary phloem to the outside and secondary xylem wood to the inside Note the annual rings of wood each layer corresponding to one year s growth and the rays which traverse the secondary tissue Also note the formation of a periderm from the cork cambium at the stem periphery Check off the terms from the illustrations in your book secondary xylem secondary phloem vascular cambium cortex pith and periderm Observe the demonstration slide of a close up of the junction between one annual ring and the next The rings are caused by






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