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UGA BIOL 1108 - Blood Sugar and Calcium Regulation

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BIOL 1108 1nd Edition Lecture 18Outline of Last Lecture I. Learning ObjectivesII. Major Communication and Control Systems III. Endocrine SystemIV. Reproduction and Development V. Hormone Evolution VI. AIS Outline of Current Lecture I. Learning Objectives II. Blood Sugar RegulationIII. Calcium RegulationCurrent LectureI. Learning Objectives 1. Be able to- Describe a homeostatic feedback response for blood sugar (+/-) and blood calcium (+/-)II. Blood Sugar Regulationa. Energy- major source of fuel for respirationb. Carbohydrate skeletons proved for biosynthesis- building more complicated molecules from simple ones c. Range: 70-100 mg/100 mLTOPHAT QUESTION: You just skipped a meal, what is the effector organ for the up-regulation of your blood sugar levels?A) The liver These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.- Hormoneso Glucagon- made by alpha cells in the pancreas Target tissues: liver cells Glucagon signals the conversion of glycogen in the liver to glucose and its release into the blood streamo Insulin- made by beta cells in the pancreas Target tissues: any cell except the brain that take up glucose Cells in the liver uptake glucose and store it as glycogen; decrease glycogen breakdown- Diabetes Mellitus o Type I Insulin dependent  Immune system is destroying the beta cells in the pancreas Cannot produce insulino Type II Non- insulin dependent  Failure of the target cells to respond normally Lack of exercise and excess body weight aid because the additional sugar in fat cannot be removed 7th most common cause of death in the U.SIII. Calcium Regulation - Importanceo Normal cell functioningo Synaptic transmission- If the levels are too low then it’s going to affect skeletal muscles, causing them to contract convulsively (tetanus)- If the levels are too high the calcium phosphate precipitates form in the body tissues and can cause organ failure - Range: 9-11 mg/ 100 mL- Hormoneso Parathyroid hormone (PTH) Produced in the parathyroid Target tissues: bones- release Ca 2+ into the bloodstream and kidneys- reabsorption of Ca2+ and converts vitamin D into an active hormone which stimulates the uptake of Ca2+ from bloodo Calcitonin Produced in the thyroid Target tissues: bones- inhibits uptake of Ca2+ rom bones into the bloodstream and kidneys- enhances Ca2+ release from


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