UT Knoxville PSYC 110 - 8-23 (11 pages)

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8-23



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8-23

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Pages:
11
School:
University of Tennessee
Course:
Psyc 110 - General Psychology

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Chapter Chapter 1 1 Psychology Psychology and and Scientific Scientific Thinking Thinking Popular Psych Myths We only use 10 of our brains It s better to express anger than to hold it in The polygraph test is an accurate means of detecting lies Opposites attract Full moons cause crime and craziness A large proportion of criminals successfully use the insanity defense Psychology Defined Scientific study of the mind brain and behavior Multiple levels of analysis Psychology faces unique challenges other sciences do not face Challenges of Psychology 1 Actions are multiply determined 2 Psychological influences are rarely independent of each other 3 Individual differences 4 People influence each other 5 Culture influences behavior Common Sense Common sense can lead us astray Na ve realism o Belief that we see the world precisely as it is Psychology as a science o Science subjects our observations to rigorous tests Scientific Theory Theory Explanation for a large number of findings in the natural world Hypothesis specific prediction derived from the explanations Misconceptions 1 A theory explains one specific event 2 A theory is just an educated guess Human Bias Science attempts to protect us from bias Confirmation bias o Seeking evidence that supports our beliefs and denying evidence that contradicts them Belief perseverance o Sticking to initial beliefs even when evidence contradicts them Pseudoscience A set of claims that seem scientific but are not Lacks the safeguards against confirmation bias and belief perseverance Pseudoscience warning signs 1 Overuse of ad hoc immunizing hypotheses 2 Lack of self correction 3 Overreliance on anecdotes Why do we believe it Our brains are predisposed to make order out of disorder and find sense in nonsense 1 Apophenia perceiving meaningful connections among unrelated phenomena 2 Pareidolia seeing meaningful images in meaningless visual stimuli Fighting Fallacies Recognize logical fallacies to combat pseudoscience 1 Emotional



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