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Social Interaction In Everyday Life

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Social Interaction In Everyday LifeSocial InteractionStatusType of StatusRoleRole Conflict and Role StrainRole ExitThe Social Construction of RealityReality Building: Class and CultureGoffman’s Dramaturgical AnalysisNonverbal Communication Communication using body movements, gestures, and facial expressions rather than speechGender and PerformancesIdealizationEmbarrassment and TactEmotions: The Social Construction of FeelingGender and LanguageHumorSlide 18Sociology, 12th Edition by John MacionisCopyright  2008 Prentice Hall, a division of Pearson Education. All rights reserved.Social Interaction In Everyday LifeThe process by which people act and react in relation to othersSociology, 12th Edition by John MacionisCopyright  2008 Prentice Hall, a division of Pearson Education. All rights reserved.Social Interaction•The symbolic interaction paradigm•Humans rely on social structure to make sense out of everyday situations.Sociology, 12th Edition by John MacionisCopyright  2008 Prentice Hall, a division of Pearson Education. All rights reserved.Status•A social position that a person holds•Status set–All the statuses held at one time•Dance partner•Boss•Friend•Harley club member•Sports participant•BusinessmanSociology, 12th Edition by John MacionisCopyright  2008 Prentice Hall, a division of Pearson Education. All rights reserved.Type of Status•Ascribed: Involuntary positions•Achieved: Voluntary positionsOften the two types work together. What we’re ascribed often helps us achieve other statuses.•Master status: Has special importance for social identity, often shaping a person’s entire life.Sociology, 12th Edition by John MacionisCopyright  2008 Prentice Hall, a division of Pearson Education. All rights reserved.Role•Role set–A number of roles attached to a single status–Example: status of mother•Disciplinarian•Sports authority•Dietitian•Dr. Mom•Pretty momThe behavior expected of someone who holds a particular statusSociology, 12th Edition by John MacionisCopyright  2008 Prentice Hall, a division of Pearson Education. All rights reserved.Role Conflict and Role Strain•Role conflict –Involves two or more statuses•Example: Conflict between role expectations of a police officer who catches her own son using drugs at home–mother and police officer•Role strain–Involves a single status•Example: Manager who tries to balance concern for workers with task requirements–office managerSociology, 12th Edition by John MacionisCopyright  2008 Prentice Hall, a division of Pearson Education. All rights reserved.Role Exit•Role exit: Becoming an “ex”–Disengaging from social roles can be very traumatic without proper preparation.•The process of becoming an “ex” –Doubts form about ability to continue with a certain role.–Examination of new roles leads to a turning point at which time one decides to pursue a new direction. –Learning new expectations associated with new role.–Past role might influence new self.Sociology, 12th Edition by John MacionisCopyright  2008 Prentice Hall, a division of Pearson Education. All rights reserved.The Social Constructionof Reality•The process by which people creatively shape reality through social interaction.•“Street smarts”•The Thomas theorem–Situations that are defined as real are real in their consequences•Ethnomethodology–The study of the way people make sense of their everyday surroundings–Explores the process of making sense of social encountersSociology, 12th Edition by John MacionisCopyright  2008 Prentice Hall, a division of Pearson Education. All rights reserved.•How we act or what we see in our surroundings depends on our interests.•Social background also affects what we see.•People build reality from the surrounding culture.Reality Building: Class and CultureSociology, 12th Edition by John MacionisCopyright  2008 Prentice Hall, a division of Pearson Education. All rights reserved.Goffman’s Dramaturgical Analysis•Presentation of self or impression management–Efforts to create specific impressions in the minds of others.•Role performance includes–Stage setting–Use of props: costume, tone of voice, gesture–Example: Going to the doctor and playing the expected patient role.Examining social interaction in terms of theatrical performancesSociology, 12th Edition by John MacionisCopyright  2008 Prentice Hall, a division of Pearson Education. All rights reserved.Nonverbal CommunicationCommunication using body movements, gestures, and facial expressions rather than speech•Words•Voice•Body language•Facial expressions•Deameanor•Personal spaceGoffman and idealization: We try to convince others that what we do reflects ideal cultural standards rather than selfish motives.Sociology, 12th Edition by John MacionisCopyright  2008 Prentice Hall, a division of Pearson Education. All rights reserved.Gender and Performances•Gender is a central element in personal performances.•Demeanor–The way we act and carry ourselves•Use of space–Power plays a key role.•Staring, smiling, touching–Eye contact encourages interaction.–Smiling: Trying to please or submission?–Touching: Intimacy and caringSociology, 12th Edition by John MacionisCopyright  2008 Prentice Hall, a division of Pearson Education. All rights reserved.Idealization•We construct performances to idealize our intentions.•Professionals typically idealize their motives for entering their chosen careers.•We all use idealization to some degree.Sociology, 12th Edition by John MacionisCopyright  2008 Prentice Hall, a division of Pearson Education. All rights reserved.Embarrassment and Tact•Embarrassment: Discomfort following a spoiled performance. •Goffman: Embarrassment is "losing face."•Tact is helping someone "save face."•An audience often overlooks flaws in a performance, allowing the actor to avoid embarrassment.•Goffman: Although behavior is often spontaneous, it is more patterned than we think.Sociology, 12th Edition by John MacionisCopyright  2008 Prentice Hall, a division of Pearson Education. All rights reserved.Emotions: The Social Construction of Feeling•The biological side of emotions–Ekman: Some emotional responses are “wired” into humans.•The cultural side of emotions–Ekman: Culture defines what triggers an emotion.•Emotions on the job–Hochschild: The typical company tries to


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