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RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BODY COMPOSITION,LEG STRENGTH,ANAEROBIC POWER, AND ON-ICESKATING PERFORMANCE IN DIVISION IMEN’SHOCKEY ATHLETESJEFFREY A. POTTEIGER,DEAN L. SMITH,MARK L. MAIER, AND TIMOTHY S. FOSTERDepartment of Kinesiology and Health, Miami University, Oxford, OhioABSTRACTPotteiger, JA, Smith, DL, Maier, ML, and Foster, TS. Relationshipbetween body composition, leg strength, anaerobic power, andon-ice skating performance in division I men’s hockey athletes.JStrengthCondRes24(7): 1755–1762, 2010—The purpose ofthis study was to examine relationships between laboratory testsand on-ice skating performance in division I men’s hockeyathletes. Twenty-one men (age 20.7 6 1.6 years) were assessedfor body composition, isokinetic force production in thequadriceps and hamstring muscles, and anaerobic musclepower via the Wingate 30-second cycle ergometer test. Airdisplacement plethysmography was used to determine % bodyfat (%FAT), fat-free mass (FFM), and fat mass. Peak torque andtotal work during 10 maximal effort repetitions at 120°s21weremeasured during concentric muscle actions using an isokineticdynamometer. Muscle power was measured using a Monarkcycle ergometer with resistance set at 7.5% of body mass.On-ice skating performance was measured during 6 timed 89-msprints with subjects wearing full hockey equipment. First lengthskate (FLS) was 54 m, and total length skate (TLS) was 89 mwith fastest and average skating times used in the analysis.Correlation coefficients were used to determine relationshipsbetween laboratory testing and on-ice performance. Subjectshad a body mass of 88.8 6 7.8 kg and %FAT of 11.9 6 4.6. Firstlength skate–Average and TLS-Average skating times weremoderately correlated to %FAT ([r = 0.53; p = 0.013] and[r =0.57;p = 0.007]) such that a greater %FAT was related toslower skating speeds. First length skate–Fastest was correlatedto Wingate percent fatigue index (r = 20.48; p = 0.027) andFLS-Average was correlated to Wingate peak power perkilogram body mass (r = 20.43; p = 0.05). Laboratory testingof select variables can predict skating performance in ice hockeyathletes. This information can be used to develop targeted andeffective strength and conditioning programs that will improveon-ice skating speed.KEY WORDS testing, speed, Wingate, skeletal muscleINTRODUCTIONIce hockey is a physically demanding sport that requiresathletes to generate maximal levels of power and speedwhile maintaining balance when responding to on-icemovements of other players. This must be accom-plished while participating in offensive and defensive strategiesdesigned to maximize scoring opportunities for one’s own teamand minimizing scoring opportunities for the opposing team.The merging of athletic skill and ability, proper physicalconditioning, mental preparation, and appropriate nutritionintake with appropriate game strategies leads to successfulperformance on the ice during competition (6).Various physiological attributes contribute to successfulsport and athletic performance with the combined interactionof the aerobic and anaerobic energy pathways, muscularstrength and power, flexibility, and balance being important tothe success of ice hockey athletes (6). Consequently, thedevelopment of physiological profiles of these attributes helpsin the selection of athletes who will perform at optimal levelsduring competition, assists in the identification of individualplayer strengths and weaknesses, and contributes to thedevelopment of successful sport-specific training programs(11). Skating ability is one of many important factors thatcontributes to successful performance in ice hockey athletes(6). In an effort to better understand the role physical attributeshave in on-ice skating performance, several studies have beenconducted that examine the relationship between laboratorymeasures of performance and on-ice skating speed. Individualmeasures and combined batteries of tests including bodycomposition, standing long jump, vertical jump, 3 hop jump,side shuffle, drop jumps, 1 repetition maximum leg press,running sprint tests, and the Wingate anaerobic power andcapacity test have been evaluated to determine their individualAddress correspondence to Dr. Jeffery A. Potteiger, [email protected](7)/1755–1762Journal of Strength and Conditioning ResearchÓ 2010 National Strength and Conditioning AssociationVOLUME 24 | NUMBER 7 | JULY 2010 | 1755or collective contribution to on-ice skating performance(1,3,8,19). Collectively, the available research suggests thatsome but not all laboratory measures may effectively predicton-ice skating performance in both men and women icehockey players.In an effort to further examine the relationship betweenselected laboratory measures of physical performance and on-ice skating speed, we had athletes from an National CollegiateAthletic Association (NCAA) division I Intercollegiate icehockey team assessed for body composition and then performa Wingate anaerobic power test, an isokinetic leg dynamom-eter test, and an on-ice speed skating test. Specifically, thepurpose of this study was to examine relationships between theoff-ice laboratory testing of body composition and leg strengthand power, and on-ice skating speed in these division I men’shockey athletes. We also attempted to identify the bestpredictors of on-ice skating speed from the measuredlaboratory variables. The results of this study provide additionalinformation on the use of laboratory testing to predict on-iceskating speed and assist in the development of effective trainingand conditioning programs.METHODSExperimental Approach to the ProblemAll subjects were tested after 5 weeks of a preseason strengthand conditioning program that was directed and monitoredby the Miami University Intercollegiate Strength andConditioning staff. Testing occurred during the first weekof October, immediately before regularly scheduled icehockey practice began for the 2008–2009 season. This wasa team of highly skilled athletes who participated in theNCAA Frozen Four Championship finishing as NationalRunners up.All subjects were tested at the same time of the day tocontrol for diurnal variations. Subjects were tested on 3separate occasions with at least 48 hours between testingdays. On the first day of testing, subjects reported to theHealth and Human Performance laboratory where they weremeasured for body mass and body composition. Immediatelythereafter, subjects were tested for anaerobic power


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