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HAVERFORD PHYS 211 - Introduction to the Physics 211 Laboratory

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Introduction to the Physics 211 LaboratoryThe Physics 211 laboratory has two main objectives: (1) to introduce you to some basic skillsin electronics and thoughtful experimentation; and (2) to give you a chance to experience,firsthand, some of the phenomena involving oscillations and waves that are central to Physics 213.During the first six weeks of the semester, everyone will be doing the following labs in theorder listed:1. Direct Current Circuits (continued from Physics 106), with particular attention to theconcepts of input and output impedance. (Short report)2. Alternating Current Circuits, constructed from resistors and capacitors. In this lab,you are to become comfortable with oscilloscopes, learn to measure capacitance, andconstruct some low- and high-pass filters. (Short report)3. Impedance, Oscillations and Resonant Circuits, in which you explore both transientoscillations, and those that are driven by an external periodic signal. (Oral report)4. Semiconductor Diodes, in which you explore the properties of a typical nonlinearcircuit element and some of the practical circuits that can be made from it. (Short report)5. Operational Amplifiers are integrated circuit building blocks that can be used for ahost of signal processing functions in experimental work in any scientific discipline. (Shortreport)6. Geometrical Optics, in which you study lenses, Brewster’s angle and index ofrefraction. (Short report)After completion of the above labs, you will rotate through six of the seven labs listed below.Because the logistics will not permit us to coordinate the laboratory closely with the lectures, youmust read the materials provided to you, and follow them up with library sources and discussionwith the laboratory instructor. Some of these labs are more open-ended than those you haveexperienced before, and thus you will take advantage of your resourcefulness and creativity. 7. Dispersion Relation for Water Waves, in which you determine the nonlinearrelationship between frequency and wavenumber for waves on a fluid surface. (Formalreport)8. Ultrasound Imaging: Here you learn about the physics of ultrasound (highfrequency sound) and use it to image the interior of objects that are not transparent to light.(Oral report)12 Introduction9. Non-linear oscillations involves the study of a chaotic system. (Formal report)10. Abbe Theory of Imaging & Physical Optics, in which you will analyze images interms of spatial frequencies. (Oral report)11. Optical instruments, in which you will construct telescopes and examine thephysical characteristics of the eye. (Short report)12. Resonance and Normal Modes. (Short report)LAB REQUIREMENTS: You are expected to prepare before coming to lab, by reading thematerials provided and answering any pre-lab questions that are contained in them. Hand inyour clear and coherent answers to the pre-lab questions at the beginning of the lab period. Ifyou need help with these questions, feel free to ask the instructors—before the lab period! Attendance is required at each lab period. Please send e-mail to samador or sshelley inadvance if you need to miss a lab. NOTE: Athletic absences if any should be arranged at thebeginning of the semester. LAB NOTEBOOKS: You must have a lab notebook for use during lab. We recommend a ringbinder that allows material to be inserted or rearranged. (This would not be allowed in anindustrial research lab where non-modifiable records are required for patent applications.) For each lab, your notebook should contain:1. Answers to the Pre-Lab questions posed in the lab manual. These must be done (or atleast attempted) prior to lab. If done afterwards, this fact should be noted in thenotebook! 2. To the extent that what you did in lab differed from what was described in the labmanual, give a brief summary of what you did, including circuit diagrams for electronicsexperiments. 3. Data (or observations) obtained during lab in its original form (may not be changed orre-written later, but may be photocopied from your partner). EACH ITEM SHOULDHAVE A BRIEF TITLE SO IT IS CLEAR WHAT EXPERIMENT IS BEING DONE.4. Answers to (or discussions of) all of the underlined questions posed in the lab manual,including data analysis and graphs with appropriate estimates of uncertainties. Some ofthis material may be written after lab. (Not necessary for oral or Formal reports).5. Any additional comments you think should be added, for example to address theconceptual issues posed by the experiment.Introduction 3This material should be completed by the start of following lab session, i.e., on the day you arescheduled to begin work on the next lab. It is fine to put a line through material in your notebook that you have later decided isincorrect. Scratch work and informal notes that the instructor should ignore can be placed in theback of the book. We do not intend reporting on your work to be burdensome. Our general hopeis to focus your attention on the work in lab, and to limit the writing to the amount required forus to judge the quality of your work and understanding. You need not repeat material that iscontained in the lab manual. LAB REPORTS: For many experiments, a photocopy of the material described under “LabNotebooks” will suffice. However, your work on certain experiments will be evaluated by meansof formal written reports or oral discussion reports.- Formal written reports: You are asked to write formal written reports (describedbelow) on the Non-linear Oscillator and Dispersion Relation for Water Wavesexperiments. You and your lab partner should analyze the data together but write yourreports independently. The report is due at the start of lab on the second Thursdayfollowing the completion of this lab (since the formal report will require more time thanusual). For these experiments, your notebooks need contain only the pre-lab questionsand


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