New version page

Musical Motion

Upgrade to remove ads

This preview shows page 1-2-3-4 out of 12 pages.

Save
View Full Document
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 12 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 12 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 12 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 12 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience

Upgrade to remove ads
Unformatted text preview:

HaskinsLaboratoriesStatusReportanSpeechResearch1993,SR-114,167-178Musical Motion: Some Historical and ContemporaryPerspectives*Bruno H. ReppThe ideathatmusic "moves"hasa longandvariedhistory. Some aspectsofthisnotionaremetaphorical (e.g.,the"motions" between pitches, harmonies,orkeys),whereasothersaremore literal.Thelatterderive fromtheperformer's actionsthatbringthemusictolife.Thisgesturalinformation is encodedintheexpressive microstructureoftheperformanceatseveralhierarchicallynestedlevels. Some olderdemonstrationsinsupportofthispropositionhaveusedthetechniqueof"accompanying movements",devisedandelaboratedbyauthorssuchasEduardSievers,GustavBecking,andAlexanderTruslit.Contemporary approaches,mostnotably thoseofManfred ClynesandNeil Todd, focusinsteadon performanceanalysisandsynthesis. Toddhasprovided evidencethattempomodulationsinexpertperformances obey aconstraintoflinearchangesinvelocity,suggestingthatmusicis"setintomotion"bysome kindofforceorimpulsefunction.Clyneshasproposed (following Becking)thattheparametersoftheseunderlying functionsdistinguishdifferent composers.Thenotionofspatio-temporal coupling,illustratedbyPaolo Viviani's work on drawing movements, suggests a theoreticalbasisfortherecoveryofspatialmovement from temporal information. Physical lawsofmotionthusimposeconstraints on performance microstructure, constraintsthatarealso reflectedinlisteners'perceptionandaestheticjudgments.INTRODUCTIONMusicismadeby movinghands,fingers,orextensionsthereofoveraninstrument,andthedynamictimecourseofthesemQvementsisreflectedtosomeextentintheresultingstreamofsounds. Conversely, peoplelisteningtomusicfrequentlyperform coordinatedmovementsthatrangefrom foottappingtoelaboratedance.Althoughthesemovementsonthelistener'ssidearenotthesameasthoseoftheperformer,theyarecertainlynotunrelated.Atthevery least,theysharea rhythmic frameworkthatgetstransmittedfromplayertolistenerviathesound structure.Inmanyculturesthisclose connectionofmusicandmovement is so obviousastohardlydeservecomment.InEurope,however,theremarkabledevelopmentofmusicalnotationandofcomplexcompositionaltechniquesoverthelastfewcenturieshasledto a focus onthestructuralratherthanthekinematicproperties of music,atleastof so-called serious music.Atthesame time,asthismusic was performedmainlyinchurchorconcerthalls,a socialrestrictionagainstovertmovementinlistenershaslong beenineffect. As aresultofthesepractices,theclose connectionofmusicandmotionhasrecededfrom people'sconsciousness,and20thcenturyaestheticandtechnological developmentshaveoccasionally evenseveredthatconnection,withonly fewtakingnotice. Therefore,thereisaneedtodaytore-assesstheconceptofmusicalmotionanditsroleinperformanceandmusic appreciation.My purposeinthispaperisnottoreview philo-sophical or musicologicaltreatmentsofthistopic;sufficeittomentiontheimportantdiscussions byLanger(1953),Zuckerkandl(1973),andSessions(1950), amongmanyothers.Rather,I will focus onthelimitedandfar-betweenattemptsto provideempiricaldemonstrationsofthekinematiccorre-latesofWesternartmusic. Also, I willnotdwellonthemoreabstractandmetaphoricnotionsofmelodicandharmonic motion common amongmU-sicologists, which concernthetransitionsfrom onepitch,oroneharmony,oronetonalitytoanother-movementsthatcanbe seen,asitwere,by moving one's eyes overtheprintedscore. Iamconcernedprimarilywithrhythmicmotion, which167168Repppresupposes a performance, ahumanrealizationofthemusicasstructuredsound,whetheractualor imagined.Thequestion Iampursuing,then,is:Whatisthenatureoftherhythmicmotion infor-mationinmusic,andhow canitskinematic impli-cations be demonstrated?InthispresentationIintendto review brieflythepioneeringwork ofthreelargelyforgottenindividualswho were activeinGermanyduringtheearlydecadesofthiscentury.Indoing so, Ihopetoinform orremindyouoftheirtheoreticalaccomplishments, however limitedtheirempiricalcontributionmayseem fromourmodemscientificperspective.ThenI willturntosamplingtheworkoftwo contemporaryresearcherswho-knowinglyinonecase,unwittinglyintheother-haveelaborated uponandincreasedtheprecision oftheGermanpioneers' ideas, sothattheycannow besubjected to rigorous tests. I will concludewithaverybriefforay intothemotor controlliterature,againfocusing on a singleresearcherwhose workseems to beparticularlypertinenttothekinds ofmotionthatmusicengenders.BecauseoftimeconstraintsI willnotbe able todojusticetotherelatedwork ofmanyothers, for exampleJohanSundbergandAlfGabrielsson;tothemIapologize,butyoucanhearabouttheirlatestwork first-handatthisconference.ThreeGermanpioneers:Sievers, Becking,andTruslitWhereasno one doubtsthatthereis visual in-formation for motion,theconcept of auditory mo-tion information is less widely accepted, especiallysinceitinvolvesanessentiallystationarysoundsource-themusicalinstrumentbeing played on.Onereasonforthisscepticismmaybethatvisualmotioninformationisgenerallycontinuousintime,whereasauditory motion information, espe-ciallythatinmusic, is oftencarriedby discreteevents (i.e., tone onsets)thatonly samplethetimecourse oftheunderlying movement.Theprincipaltechnique fordemonstratingthatmusic does con-vey movement information isthereconstitution oftheanalogousspatialmovement by ahumanlis-tener.Thelistener'sbodythusactsasatrans-ducer, akindof filter fortheoften impulse-likecoding of musical movement.Thefirstmodernattempttousesuchatechniqueina systematic fashionmustbe creditedtotheGermanphilologistEduardSievers, whoapplieditnotto musicbuttoliteraryworks.Sievers called hismethodSchallanalyse("soundanalysis"),thoughitwasnotconcernedwithsoundassuchbutratherwithbodypostureandmovementasawayofreconstructingandanalyzingtheexpressivesoundshapeofprintedlanguage,mostly poetry.Heneverpublishedacompleteaccountofhisverycomplexmethods.Sievers (1924) providesanoverview; for amorerecentcritical evaluation, seeUngeheuer(1964).Sievers'sinitialimpetuscame from observationsofateacherofsinging,JosephRutz, published byhissonOtmarRutz (1911, 1922),aboutconnec-tionsbetweenbodypostureandvoicequality.Certainbodyposturesweresaidtoinhibitvocalproduction,whereasothersfacilitateditandgaveita free,uninhibitedquality. Sieversinitiallyfo-cused onthesestaticbody postures whichhesym-bolizedbymeansof"optic signals"intheformofgeometricshapesthatweremeantto cue differentbodyposturesinaspeakerrecitingatext.Subsequentlyheelaboratedthismethodintoasystemofdynamic movements,tobecarriedoutwitha baton,withtheindexfinger,orevenwithbotharmswhile speaking.Thecrucialcriterionwastheachievement


Download Musical Motion
Our administrator received your request to download this document. We will send you the file to your email shortly.
Loading Unlocking...
Login

Join to view Musical Motion and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or
We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view Musical Motion 2 2 and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or

By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?