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Reeves Petroff Pesticide Education Specialist

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Reeves PetroffPesticide Education SpecialistMontana Cooperative Extension Service• Toxicity• Routes of exposure•PPE•1stAidWhat are pesticides?•-cidesPesticidesInsecticidesHerbicides RodenticidesToxicity of PesticidesToxicity – capability of a substance to cause injury or death.How poisonous it is!Risk?Hazard = Toxicity x ExposurePesticide InjuriesInjuries – Mixing and Loading• 60% of injuries• Application - 38%• 57% of all injuries are systemic.• About 25% are eye injuries• 37% of all - law violations – drift, no PPEHerbicides – developed to kill plants.- Skin, eye damage- sensitization, allergic Insecticides – true poisonsModern Insecticides••Organochlorines Organochlorines ––DDTDDT,,Enderin, Dieldrin, Endosulfan– Disrupts sodium channelsOrganophosphates Organophosphates ––Parathion, Malathion, Di-syston, Cygon, Diazinon,Dursban, Lorsban, Reldan, Guthion - Cholinesterase inhibitor - irreversibleCarbamatesCarbamates– Lannate, Furadan, Sevin- Cholinesterase inhibitor - reversiblePage 13Cholinesterase InhibitionAxonAxonSynapseAcetylcholineCholin-esteraseCholinesterase InhibitionNeuronNeuronCholin-esteraseCholinesterase inhibitor OP – Atropine – stops nerve response- 2 PAM chloride – restores function Carbamates - Reversible Atropine onlyAntidotes for OP PoisoningTOXICITYPesticide’s power to kill or cause serious damage to the body. Acute toxicity - after a single exposure or dose. Symptoms occur within minutes of the exposure or from 12 to 24 hours after the exposure has occurred. Acute toxic effects are nearly always the result of an accident or careless handling.Usually occurs with more toxic pesticidesPage 39Measuring Toxicity – LD50Some Common Oral LD50 Values• Aldicarb (Temik) (I) – ----------------------0.9• Ethyl parathion (I) - -------------------------3• Carbofuran (Furadan)(I) -------------------8• Methyl parathion (I) – ----------------------9• Caffeine-----------------------------------------200• 2,4-D (H)----------------------------------------375• Table Salt---------------------------------------3750• Permethrin (Ambush) (I) ------------------4000• Imathamethabenz-methyl (Assert) (H)-->5000• Glyphosate (Roundup)(H)-------------------5600• Picloram (Tordon)(H)------------------------8200• Captan (F)--------------------------------------9000Dose makes the Poison!Alcohol!Toxicity TestingLab Test Conducted• Dermal – skin• Oral• Inhalation• EyesTesting determines “signal words”Signal Words• Danger-Poison 0-50 oral LD50• Danger Corrosive(0-200 dermal LD50• Warning 50-500 LD50• Caution>500 LD50…..Signal Words…...Indicate the relative acute toxicity of a pesticideHighly toxic or highly corrosiveFew drops to 1 Teaspoon to killModerately toxic - 1 Teaspoon To 1 Tablespoon to killLeast Toxic - 1 Tablespoon to a pint or more.CHRONIC TOXICITY• The delayed effects of regular repeated exposures over a long period of time.• Long term health effects– Potential tumors – Birth defects – Reproductive effects– Systemic effects– Allergic effectsOccurs often with least toxic pesticides – people become careless due to low toxicity ratingWhat part of a pesticide operation is usually the most hazardous? Why? What toxic effect is usually the result of an accident?True or FalseA high LD50 means that something is very poisonous.A compound with an oral LD50of 0-20 would probably get which signal word?True or False. LD50is a good measure of chronic toxicity.SYSTEMIC EFFECTSUsually affects:Circulatory SystemNervous SystemSkinLungsLiver and KidneysAnemia, no clottingJaundice, kidney failureRashes, sores that won’t healTrembles, neuropathyEmphysema, asthmaUsually a result of long-term chronic exposurePesticide-causedALLERGIC EFFECTSPesticide-triggeredBecome SensitizedInfluenced by geneticsAllergic reaction - Asthma or even shock, ---Skin irritation, rashes, blisters, or open sores. Eye, nose and throat irritation, such as itchy, watery eyes; sneezing and tightness in the throat, PhotosensitivityPesticides and the BodyRoutes of ExposureWhere most pesticide exposures occur!EC = + absorptionCuts, scrapes, hot ‘n sweatyRemoveWashChangeDoctor if feeling illUsually accidentalImproper storageInduce vomiting?Vapors, mists--Mixing--when pouring--Mixing --when pouringAccidentsCan be confused with:–Flu– Heat injuries– Food poisoning–AsthmaPesticide PoisoningSymptomsSymptoms may be delayed 12 – 24 hours after exposureHeat Injuries Look Like Pesticide Injuries• Sweating • Headache• Fatigue• Dry Membranes• Dry Mouth• No tears or spit• Fast pulse• Dilated pupils• Confusion• Loss of coordination• Sweating• Headache• Fatigue• Moist Membranes• Salivation, spit, tears• Slow pulse• Pinpoint Pupils• Confusion• Loss of coordinationHeat Injuries Pesticide InjuriesBasic First Aid• Clear the Airway• Maintain Breathing• Maintain Circulation – stop bleeding, treat for shock• Prevent the Disability – stop contamination• Prevention is best 1staid. • Is there anything you need to know ahead of time?Do not induce vomiting unless the label directs it!Take the label to the hospital!Is special PPE required?Only atropine is used to counteract the effects of what type of insecticide.The onset of _______ symptoms within 12-24 hours of pesticide spraying may indicate pesticide poisoningWhat Signal word best indicates the corrosive effects of a pesticide?Most pesticide exposures are to what part of the body?Protecting your Bod!• Skin • Eyes• Ingestion• InhalationRates of AbsorptionGloves• Unlined gloves (BLM)• Do Not Wear Leather Gloves!• Do Not Wear exam gloves!• Check for holes often!• Want at least 14 milsGlovesGlove Material ClassificationA-- Dry or water based pesticide formulation.B---Pesticide with acetate as the carrier solvent.C---Pesticide with alcohol as the carrier solvent. D---Pesticide with halogenated hydrocarbons as the carrier.E---Pesticide with ketones (acetone) as the carrier solvent. Poast Plus®, Weedone 638®, 2,4-D LV 6 Ester®F---Pesticide with ketone and aromatic petroleum distillate mixtures as the carrier solvent. Example - Di-syston 8®G---Pesticide with aliphatic petroleum distillates ( such askerosene, petroleum oil or mineral oil as the carrier solvent. Example -Guthion 2L®H---Pesticide carrier = aromatic petroleum distillates ( xylene)Glove Material• Nitrile – Good overall


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