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SFCC A-P 243 - Water and Electrolyte Balance

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Volume of Body Fluid in the different body compartmentsComparison of Electrolytes in Plasma, Interstitial Fluids and Intracellular FluidsDaily Water Balance Under Normal ConditionsPathways Through Which Dehydration Stimulates Hypothalamic Thirst CentersRelationship Between Sodium Intake, Water Balance and HormonesSeries of Events in Water IntoxicationRole of ADH in Water BalanceSummary of Hormones Involved in Water BalanceSlide 9Changes to Sodium BalanceSummary of Hormones Involved in Sodium BalanceSlide 12Changes in Chloride BalanceSummary of Hormones Involved in Chloride BalanceChanges to Potassium BalanceSummary of Hormones Involved in Potassium BalanceChanges in Calcium BalanceSummary of Hormones Involved in Calcium BalanceMaintaining Body pH BalanceSlide 20Slide 21Slide 22Changes to pH Balance - AcidosisSummary of Systems Involved in pH BalanceSlide 25Slide 26Slide 27Changes to pH Balance - AlkalosisSlide 29Slide 30Slide 31Slide 32Volume of Body Fluid in the different body compartmentsComparison of Electrolytes in Plasma, Interstitial Fluids and Intracellular FluidsDaily Water Balance Under Normal ConditionsPathways Through Which Dehydration Stimulates Hypothalamic Thirst CentersRelationship Between Sodium Intake, Water Balance and HormonesSeries of Events in Water IntoxicationRole of ADH in Water BalanceSummary of Hormones Involved in Water BalanceChanges to Sodium BalanceElectrolyte Cause SymptomsHyponatremiaLow Sodium(<130 mEq/l)Normal Range:(135-142 mEq/l)Decreased intakeIncreased loss through vomiting, diarrhea, aldosterone deficiency, DiureticsMuscular weaknessdizziness, headache, hypotension, tachycardia, shock, mental confusion, and comaHypernatremiaHigh Sodium(> 150mEq/l)Dehydration, excessive sodium intake, or excessive sodium in intravenous fluidsIntense thirst, hypertension, edema, agitation, convulsionsSummary of Hormones Involved in Sodium BalanceChanges in Chloride BalanceElectrolyte Causes SymptomsHypochloremiaLow Chloride(<95mEq/l)Normal Range(100 – 108 mEq/l)Excessive vomiting, overhydration, aldosterone deficiency, congestive heart failureMuscle spasms, metabolic alkalosis, hypotension, muscle tetany, and shallow respirationHyperchloremiaHigh Chloride(>112 mEq/l)Dehydration, excessive intake, severe renal failure, hyperaldosteronism, acidosisLethargy, weakness, metabolic acidosis, hyperventilationSummary of Hormones Involved in Chloride BalanceChanges to Potassium BalanceElectrolyte Causes SymptomsHypokalemiaLow Potassium(<2 mEq/l)Normal Range:(3.8 – 5.0 mEq/l)Excessive loss through vomiting and diarrhea, decreased intake, hyperaldosteronism, kidney disease Muscle fatigue and flaccid paralysis, mental confusion, polyuria, shallow respirations, arrhythmiasHyperkalemiaHigh Potassium(>8 mEq/l)Excessive intake, renal failure, aldosterone deficiencyIrritability, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, muscular weakness, ventricular fibrillationSummary of Hormones Involved in Potassium BalanceChanges in Calcium BalanceElectrolyte Causes SymptomsHypocalcemiaLow Calcium(<4 mEq/l)Normal Range:4.5 – 5.3 mEq/l)Hypoparathyroidism, increased loss, decreased intake, elevated phosphate Numbness and tingling of fingers, hyperactive reflexes, muscle tetany, bone fractures, laryngeal muscle spasms that lead to asphyxiationHypercalcemiaHigh Calcium(>11 mEq/l)Hyperparathyroidism, excessive vitamin D, Paget’s diseaseLethargy, weakness, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, polyuria, itching, bone pain, depression, confusion, and comaSummary of Hormones Involved in Calcium BalanceMaintaining Body pH BalanceChanges to pH Balance - AcidosisCondition Definition Causes CompensationRespiratoryAcidemiaDecreased Blood pH(< 7.35)Normal Range7.35 to 7.45Hypoventilation due to emphysema, pulmonary edema, air obstructionsRenal: Increased excretion of H+, increased reabsorption of HCO3-PCO2 will be high (>28mEq/l)Normal Range24-28mEq/lMetabolicAcidemiaDecreased Blood pH(< 7.35)Loss of HCO3-diarrhea, ketosis, renal dysfunctionRespiratory:Hyperventilation will decrease PCO2:HCO3- will be lowered (<24mEq/l)Summary of Systems Involved in pH BalanceChanges to pH Balance - AlkalosisCondition Definition Causes CompensationRespiratoryHypocapniaIncreased Blood pH(>7.45)Hyperventilationdue to oxygen deficiency, pulmonary disease, anxiety, CVA, aspirin overdoseRenal: decreased excretion of H+, decreased reabsorption of HCO3-PCO2 will be lowMetabolicIncreased HCO3-Increased Blood pH(>7.45)Loss of H+ due to vomiting,gastric suctioningRespiratory:HypoventilationHCO3- will be highSummary of Systems Involved in pH


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