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Mid Term #1Lecture 1 What is ScienceScientific Reasoning (Propositional Logic)PowerPoint PresentationDeductionDeductive ProcessSlide 7Hypothetico-Deductive MethodDeductive Falsification (Conjectures and Refutations)The Process of Popperian FalsificationObjectivism vs. SubjectivismObjectivism and Subjectivism result in at least three concurrent views of scienceScience: Research programsSlide 14Lecture 1: What is Science wrap-upLecture 2: OutlineWhat Is LifeSlide 18How simple can life be?Organizing LifeSo Who’s RelatedFunctions of Life Four categories for organizing the characteristic of life: Metabolism, Growth, Reaction, ReproductionWhere does life come from? Objectivism and Subjectivism result in different views of science. These views and their assumptions affect fundamental questions of scienceOrigin of Life Where did it come from?Lecture 3: Chemistry of LifeChemical BondsElementsWhat Determines Whether Atoms Will Interact?Slide 29Slide 30ExampleHydrogen BondingHydrogen bond figureSlide 34WaterThe pH Scale and pH in generalOrganic CompoundsTypes of ReactionsTHE MACRO MOLECULESSlide 40Slide 41PhospholipidsSterols and DerivativesWaxesSlide 45Slide 46Examples of Secondary StructureSlide 48DenaturationA Permanent WaveA brief survey of a some protein typesSlide 52Slide 53Slide 54Slide 55Slide 56SignalingStorageProtein for DefenseTransportationConcepts in Transportation The Basic TermsCell Membranes And Selective Permeability (Think Grapefruit!)Mechanisms of Crossing Over (the membrane)Transport ProteinsBulk TransportFeatures of EnzymesActivation EnergyInduced-Fit ModelPulling it all togetherWhy is Cholesterol Important?Basic Cholesterol MetabolismSlide 72Cholesterol and Health What effects your cholesterol level?StatinsSlide 75Cholesterol SynthesisStatins on the MarketToo Much of a Good ThingLecture 3: Chemistry of Life Part 3 of 2Lecture 5: Nucleic Acids into Protein. (Ch 12 and 13)Hershey Chase Expt.DNA StructureDNA Replication SummaryNucleic Acids Into ProteinsSlide 85Gene TranscriptionSlide 87Transcript ModificationGenetic CodeSlide 90PolysomeWhat Happens to the New Polypeptides?OverviewWhen Things Go WrongMutation RatesLecture 6: Diabetes, sugar, and ATPLeading Causes of DeathsI don’t have to worry about that stuff till I get old!Two Types of DiabetesDiabetes MellitisRisk FactorsReducing RisksControl of Glucose MetabolismEnergy from MacromoleculesSlide 105Slide 106Slide 107Overview of Aerobic RespirationSlide 109Slide 110Aerobic RespirationSlide 112Lactate FermentationAlcoholic FermentationProcesses Are LinkedATP Formation in PlantsSummary of PhotosynthesisMachinery of Noncyclic Electron FlowLecture 7: Cell Division and CancerLeading Causes of DeathLeading Sites of New Cancer and Deaths 2003 estimatesCancerHow does Cancer Start? Cellular Damage ControlSlide 125Slide 126TumorCancer TerminologyUnderstanding CancerCell DivisionDecoding the Cell CycleCell Division MitosisStupmer? also… Key Concept:ChromosomesGene RegulationSlide 136Slide 137Cancer and SmokingSmoking and CancerProgrammed Cell Death“The Cancer has Spread”AngiogenesisAngiogenesis and MetastasisSlide 144Mid Term #1 Study Guide 1Lecture 1 What is Science•Empirical Science–Observational, descriptive Science–Detecting patterns, or departures from patterns•Theoretical Science–Generating and testing models (hypothesis testing)–Concerned with explaining observations and making predictions•Technological Science–Generating new methods and processes–TroubleshootingBasic Assumptions/ Beliefs•Materialism and Naturalism1. Operate in a closed system2. Nothing interferes with the system3. All events are totally dependent on the whole system4. Natural explanation for all phenomena•Scientific Knowledge is based on methodology–Observation–Hypothesis–Experimentation–Dynamic, not staticScientific ReasoningScientific Reasoning(Propositional Logic)(Propositional Logic)Inductive Logic•Reasoning from Experiences•Knowledge Expanding–Contains more information than premiseDeductive Logic•Start with general knowledge and predict a specific observation•Truth preserving–Contains less information than premisesKey Terms•Postulate•Premise•Principle•Theory•Hypothesis•Test•Principles of Inductivism •The number of observations forming the basis of a generalization must be large•Observations must be repeated under a variety of conditions•No observations should conflict with universal laws, principles, or theoriesProblems with Inductivism•Appeals to logic•Appeals to experience•How many observations are required?•What constitutes significant variation•Must retreat to probability•Theory: dependent on inductivism•Inductivism fails to throw new light on scienceRecognize an example of inductive reasoningDeductionProcessProcess1.1.Statement of problemStatement of problem2.2.Hypothesis as to the Hypothesis as to the cause of the problemcause of the problem3.3.Experimental tests for Experimental tests for each hypothesiseach hypothesis4.4.Predict results (how to Predict results (how to accept or reject the accept or reject the hypothesishypothesis5.5.Observe resultsObserve results6.6.Draw conclusions from Draw conclusions from the results (accept or the results (accept or reject the hypothesis)reject the hypothesis)Premis•Fundamental Assumptions•Must be both valid and trueGood tests •Prediction is logically deducible•Prediction is improbable•Prediction is verifiableDeductive ProcessProblemHypothesisTestPredictionObservationConclusionClass is too largeIf I make this confusing, then some students will dropDeliver miserableLecture about logicSome people will get confused and dropAcceptRejectObservation?No DropsNo DropsLoads-O-DropsLoads-O-DropsRejectRejectAcceptAcceptWas This a Good Example?Was This a Good Example?DeductionDeductionPremis, Fundamental AssumptionsMust be both valid and trueGood tests Prediction is logically deduciblePrediction is improbablePrediction is verifiableFacts Facts acquired acquired through through observationobservationLaws and Laws and theoriestheoriesPredictions Predictions and and explanationsexplanationsInductionInductionDeductionDeductionHypothetico-Deductive MethodHypothetico-Deductive MethodDeductive FalsificationDeductive Falsification(Conjectures and Refutations)(Conjectures and Refutations) •Positivist- –Only has supporting evidence–Ignores evidence againstThe Process of Popperian The Process of Popperian


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