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UW-Madison SOC 220 - Racial Disparities in Criminal Justice in Wisconsin

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1Racial Disparities in Criminal Justice in WisconsinPamela OliverPlan for the Talk• National overview• Wisconsin patterns in imprisonment (with mention of overall incarceration)• County comparisons in imprisonment• County comparisons in arrests• Implications: making the problem worse• What is to be doneThe Magnitude of the ProblemComparing International Incarceration Rates (Source: Sentencing Project)World Incarceration Rates in 1995: Adding US Race Patterns0 1000 2000 3000 4000AustriaBelgiumCanadaChinaDenmarkFranceGermanyIta lyJapanNetherlandsSwedenSwitzerlandScotlandEngland & WalesUkraineSouth A fri caRomaniaRussiaUS whites prison & jail 1995US blacks prison & jail 1995US whites prison 1995US Blacks prison 1995Nationally, The Black Population is Being Imprisoned at Alarming Rates• Upwards of 1/3 of the black male population is under the supervision of the correctional system (prison, jail, parole, probation)• Estimated “lifetime expectancy” of spending some time in prison is 29% for young black men.• About 9% of black men in their 20s are in prison• 7% of black children, 2.6% of Hispanic children , .8% of white children have a parent in prison (at one time) – lifetime expectancy much higher2About Rates & Disparity Ratios• Imprisonment and arrest rates are expressed as the rate per 100,000 of the appropriate population• Example: In 1999 Wisconsin new prison sentences– 1021 whites imprisoned, white population of Wisconsin was 4,701,123: 1021 ÷ 4701123 = .000217. Multiply .00021 by 100,000 = 22, the imprisonment rate per 100,000 population.– 1,266 blacks imprisoned, black population of Wisconsin was 285,308. 1266 ÷ 285308 = .004437. Multiply by 100,000 = 444• Calculate Disparity Ratios by dividing rates: 444/22 = 20.4 the black/white ratio in new prison sentence ratesUS Prison Admissions by Race01002003004005006007008001920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000Prision Admission Rate01234567Black/White RatioWhite Rate Black Rate RatioThe 1970’s Policy Shift• Shift to determinate sentencing, higher penalties• LEAA, increased funding for police departments• Crime becomes a political issue• Drug war funding gives incentives to police to generate drug arrests & convictions• Post-civil rights post-riots competitive race relations, race-coded political rhetoric.?Imprisonment Has Increased While Crime Has Declined• Imprisonment rates are a function of responses to crime, not a function of crime itself• Property crimes declined steadily between 1970s and 2000• Violent crime declined modestly overall, with smaller ups and downs in the periodCrime TrendsSource: Crunching Numbers: Crime and Incarceration at the End of the Millennium by Jan M. Chaiken Based on Bureau of Justice Statistics data from National Crime Victimization Survey. Figures adjusted for changed methodology, shaded area marks change.Property Crime3Violent Crime RapeThe Drug War• Most of the increase in imprisonment is due to drug offenses. • Drug use rates have generally declined since the 1980s, while drug imprisonments have increased. • Black adult drug use rates are only slightly higher than white (see next chart), while their imprisonment rates for drugs are enormous• Among juveniles, blacks use illegal drugs less than whites, but black juveniles have much higher drug arrest rates.Current Illicit Drug Use Among Adults (National Patterns)• 6.6 percent for whites• 6.8 percent for Hispanics• 7.7 percent for blacks• 10.6 percent for American Indian/Alaska Natives (this is largely marijuana, rates for other drugs are lower than other races)• 11.2 percent for persons reporting multiple race• 3.2 percent for Asians• Source: 1999 National Household Survey on Drug AbuseWisconsin’s High Black Incarceration RateHeadlines in 2002“Wisconsin #1 in black incarceration in 2001”Contributors to Incarceration Rates• Prisons (state-level & federal facilities)– New sentences for new offenses– Length of sentence for each offense– Probation & parole revocations• Jails (local county-level facilities)– Short-term sentences for convictions (number & length per sentence– Held awaiting trial– Held awaiting probation/parole revocation hearing• Growing use of prisons/jails for disruptive mentally ill4Wisconsin Prison AdmissionsIncluding Detailed Time Trends 1990-1999 New Imprisonment Rates by State, 19960 500 1000 1500 2000PennsylvaniaMinneso taNewYorkNewJerseyW. VirginiaWisconsinMaine N. DakotaMichiganIlli noi sNewHamp.WashingtonNebraskaMarylandColoradoHawaii FloridaVirginiaOhio AlabamaTexas Utah Iowa OklahomaGeorgiaMississippiLouisianaS. CarolinaS. D akotaTennesseeN. CarolinaArkansaKentuck yMissouriNevada Oregon CaliforniaBlacks WhitesNational & Wisconsin Imprisonment Rates0200400600800100020 30 40 50 60 70 80 90ye ar in 1900sPrision Admissions Per 100000BlackWisc WhiteWisc WhiteUS BlackUSWisconsin Prison Admissions by RaceWisconsin: Total Prison Admissions02004006008001000120014001990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999Rate per 100,000 populationWhite, NH total Black, N H total His p anic total Am erican Indian Total As ia n To ta lBlackAsianwhiteHispanicAmerIndProportion of Admissions Involving New Sentences39%18%43%0%20%40%60%New Only New + Viol Viol OnlyWhite Admissions StatusWhites Wisconsin Total051015202530351990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999pr ison adm its pe r 100,000White viol only White new only White viol+newNew Sentence OnlyViolation OnlyViolation + New5Blacks Admission StatusBlacks Wisconsin Total01002003004005006007001990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999pris on admits pe r 100,000black viol only Black new only Black viol+newNew Sentence OnlyViolation OnlyViolation + NewTotal admits, violations onlyWisconsin Total: Probation/Parole Violators01002003004005006007001990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999Rate pe r 100 ,000 populationWhite, NH total Black, NH total His panic tota l American Ind ian To tal As ia n To ta lAmerIndBlackHispanicwhiteAsianWhites, ViolatorsViolators, White Non-Hispanics0123456789101990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999YearImprisonment Rate (per 100,000)VIOLENT OFFENSES ROBBERY/BURGLARY DRUG OFFENSES LARCENY/THEFT OTHER OFFENSES UNKNOWNViolentRobbery & BurglaryOtherDrugsTheftBlack violatorsViolators, Black Non-Hispanics0204060801001201401601990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999YearImprisonment Rate (per 100,000)VIOLENT


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