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UT Arlington PHYS 1441 - Lecture Notes

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Monday, Aug. 30, 2010 PHYS 1441-002, Fall 2010 Dr. Jaehoon Yu 1 PHYS 1441 – Section 002 Lecture #1 Monday, Aug. 30, 2010 Dr. Jaehoon Yu Today’s homework is homework #1, due 9pm, Tuesday, Sept. 7!! • Who am I? • How is this class organized? • What do we want from this class? • What is Physics? • Brief history of physics • Summary of previous classes • On AccelerationMonday, Aug. 30, 2010 PHYS 1441-002, Fall 2010 Dr. Jaehoon Yu 2 Announcements • Reading assignment #1: Read and follow through all sections in appendices A1 – A8 by Wednesday, Sept. 8 – There will be a quiz on Wednesday, Sept. 8, on this reading assignment and Chapter 1Monday, Aug. 30, 2010 PHYS 1441-002, Fall 2010 Dr. Jaehoon Yu 3 Who am I? • Name: Dr. Jaehoon Yu (You can call me Dr. Yu) • Office: Rm 342, Chemistry and Physics Building • Extension: x22814, E-mail: [email protected] • My profession:High Energy Physics (HEP) – Collide particles (protons on anti-protons or electrons on anti-electrons, positrons) at the energies equivalent to 10,000 Trillion degrees – To understand • Fundamental constituents of matter • Interactions or forces between the constituents • Origin of Mass • Creation of Universe (The Big Bang Theory) – A pure scientific research activity • Direct use of the fundamental laws we find may take longer than we want but • Indirect product of research contribute to every day lives; eg. WWWMonday, Aug. 30, 2010 PHYS 1441-002, Fall 2010 Dr. Jaehoon Yu 4 High Energy Physics Structure of Matter 10-10m 10-14m 10-15m <10-18m 10-9m Matter Molecule Atom Nucleus u Quark <10-19m protons, neutrons, mesons, etc. p,W,L... top, bottom, charm, strange, up, down Condensed matter/Nano-Science/Chemistry Atomic Physics Nuclear Physics Baryon (Hadron) Electron (Lepton) 10-2mMonday, Aug. 30, 2010 PHYS 1441-002, Fall 2010 Dr. Jaehoon Yu 5 The Particle Physics Standard Model • Assumes the following fundamental structure: • Three families of leptons and quarks together with 12 force mediators  Simple and elegant!!! ~0.1mp Family Discovered in 1995, ~170mp Directly observed in 2000Monday, Aug. 30, 2010 PHYS 1441-002, Fall 2010 Dr. Jaehoon Yu 6 Accelerators are Powerful Microscopes. They make high energy particle beams that allow us to see small things. seen by high energy beam (better resolution) seen by low energy beam (poorer resolution)Monday, Aug. 30, 2010 PHYS 1441-002, Fall 2010 Dr. Jaehoon Yu 7 Accelerators are also Time Machines. E = mc2 They make particles last seen in the earliest moments of the universe. Energy Particle and anti-particle annihilate. particle beam energy anti-particle beam energyMonday, Aug. 30, 2010 PHYS 1441-002, Fall 2010 Dr. Jaehoon Yu 8 Fermilab Tevatron and LHC at CERN • Present world’s Highest Energy proton-anti-proton collider – 4km circumference – Ecm=1.96 TeV (=6.3x10-7J/p 13M Joules on 10-4m2) Þ Equivalent to the kinetic energy of a 20t truck at the speed 81mi/hr 130km/hr Chicago Tevatron p p CDF DØ • World’s Highest Energy p-p collider – 27km circumference, 100m underground – Design Ecm=14 TeV (=44x10-7J/p 300M Joules on the area less than 10-4m2)  Equivalent to the kinetic energy of a B727 (80tons) at the speed 312km/hr  193mi/hr • First 7TeV collisions on 3/30/10  The highest energy humans ever achieved!!Monday, Aug. 30, 2010 PHYS 1441-002, Fall 2010 Dr. Jaehoon Yu 9 LHC @ CERN Aerial View Geneva Airport ATLAS CMS France SwizerlandMonday, Aug. 30, 2010 PHYS 1441-002, Fall 2010 Dr. Jaehoon Yu 10 The International Linear Collider • An electron-positron collider on a straight line • CMS Energy: 0.5 – 1 TeV • 10~15 years from now • Takes 10 years to build the accelerator and the detector L~31kmAug. 20, 2010 The LHC and ATLAS, J. Yu 11 DØ Detector 30’ 50’ ATLAS Detector • Weighs 5000 tons and 5 story tall • Can inspect 3,000,000 collisions/second • Record 100 collisions/second • Records approximately 10,000,000 bytes/second • Records 0.5x1015 (500,000,000,000,000) bytes per year (0.5 PetaBytes). • Weighs 7000 tons and 10 story tall • Can inspect 1,000,000,000 collisions/second • Records 200 – 400 collisions/second • Records approximately 350,000,000 bytes/second • Will record 2x1015 (2,000,000,000,000,000) bytes each year (2 PetaByte).Monday, Aug. 30, 2010 PHYS 1441-002, Fall 2010 Dr. Jaehoon Yu 12 DØ Central Calorimeter 1990Monday, Aug. 30, 2010 PHYS 1441-002, Fall 2010 Dr. Jaehoon Yu 13 Computers put together a picture Digital data Data Reconstruction p pMonday, Aug. 30, 2010 PHYS 1441-002, Fall 2010 Dr. Jaehoon Yu 14 Time “parton jet” “particle jet” “calorimeter jet” hadrons ! CH FH EM CAL+TKS R-Z VIEW 25-MAR-1997 12:22 Run 87288 Event 22409 25-DEC-1994 02:20MUON ELEC TAUS VEES OTHER 1.<E< 2. 2.<E< 3. 3.<E< 4. 4.<E< 5. 5.<E Highest ET dijet event at DØ How does an Event Look in a Collider Detector?Monday, Aug. 30, 2010 PHYS 1441-002, Fall 2010 Dr. Jaehoon Yu 15 Information & Communication Sources • My web page: http://www-hep.uta.edu/~yu/ – Contact information & Class Schedule – Syllabus – Homework – Holidays and Exam days – Evaluation Policy – Class Style & Communication – Other information • Primary communication tool is e-mail: Register for PHYS1441-002-FALL10 e-mail distribution list as soon possible  Instructions available in Class style & Communication – 5 points extra credit if done by this Wednesday, Sept. 1 – 3 points extra credit if done by this Friday, Sept. 3 • Office Hours: 2:30pm – 3:30pm, Mondays and Wednesdays or by appointmentMonday, Aug. 30, 2010 PHYS 1441-002, Fall 2010 Dr. Jaehoon Yu 16 Evaluation Policy • Homework: 30%, single largest proportion!! • Exams – Final Comprehensive Exam (12/13): 25% – One better of the two term Exams: 20% • Total of two non-comprehensive term exams (9/22 and 11/3) • One better of the two exams will be used for the final grade – Missing an exam is not permissible unless pre-approved • No makeup test • You will get an F if you miss any of the exams without a prior approval • Lab score: 15% • Pop-quizzes: 10% •


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