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SMotivation

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Slide 1Slide 2Slide 3Slide 4Overview of Work Motivation TheoriesSlide 6Slide 7Slide 8Slide 9Slide 10Slide 11Work Motivation Theories: Equity TheorySlide 13Slide 14Slide 15Slide 16Work Motivation Theories: Expectancy TheorySlide 18Slide 19Work Motivation Theories: Locke’s Goal-Setting TheorySlide 21Slide 22Slide 23Slide 24Slide 25Work Motivation Theories: Reinforcement TheorySlide 27Slide 28Slide 29Slide 30Slide 31Slide 32Work MotivationChapter 12Five Critical Concepts in MotivationWork Motivation TheoriesOverview and Synthesis of Work Motivation TheoriesThe Application of Motivational StrategiesWork Motivation: OverviewWork motivation is a set of energetic forces that originate both within as well as beyond an individual’s being, to initiate work-related behavior, and to determine its form, direction, intensity, and durationWork Motivation: Definition3 DimensionsDirectionIntensityPersistenceBehavior: Action from which we infer motivationPerformance: Evaluation of behaviorAbility: Determinant of behaviorSituational Constraints: Determinant of behaviorMotivation: Determinant of behaviorWork Motivation: 5 ConceptsPerformance as a Function of BEHAVIORABILITYMOTIVATIONSITUATIONAL CONSTRAINTSx - =Overview of Work Motivation Theories Need theoriesCognitive theoriesJob design theoriesBehavioral theoriesWork Motivation Theories: Need Hierarchy TheoryBased on sequential ordering of human needs that individuals seek to fulfill in serial progression.• Maslow’s Need Hierarchy• Alderfer’s ERG Theory• McClelland’s Need for Achievement TheoryWork Motivation Theories: Maslow’s Hierarchy of NeedsPhysiological (Air, food, water, etc.)Safety (Security & shelter)Social (Company and acceptance of others)Esteem(Recognition from others)Self-Actualization (Self-fulfillment)Work Motivation Theories: Alderfer’s ERG TheoryPhysiological(Air, food, water, etc.)Safety (Security & shelter)Social (Company and acceptance of others)Esteem (Recognition from others)Self-Actualization (Self-fulfillment)ExistenceExistenceRelatednessRelatednessGrowthGrowthWork Motivation Theories: McClelland’s Need for Achievement TheoryPeople with a high need for achievement (high n’Ach) will put more effort into work than people without this need (low n’Ach)High n’Achs tend to desire high levels of achievement whereas low n’Achs tend to only avoid failureLow n’Achs can be trained to develop a need for achievementWork Motivation Theories: Equity TheoryEquity Theory: Motivation theory based on the social comparison process of examining the ratio of inputs and outcomes between oneself and a comparison other.Person compares themselves with OtherPerson perceived what they input into jobPerson perceives what they benefit from jobPerson compares input-benefit ratio of him/herself to OtherAdams (1965)Work Motivation Theories: Equity TheoryEquity occurs when each person has equal ratios (e.g., 50:50)Underpayment equity: The sense of unfairness derived from the perception that the ratio of one’s own inputs and outcomes is lower than the ratio of a comparison other.Overpayment equity: The sense of unfairness derived from the perception that the ratio of one's own inputs and outcomes is greater that the ration of comparison other. other’s-outcomesother’s-inputsself-outcomesself-inputsvsYou: 50 Other: 50  Fair/Equitable 50 50You: 50 Other: 75  Underpayment 50 50You: 75 Other: 50  Overpayment 50 50Work Motivation Theories: Equity TheoryWork Motivation Theories: Equity TheoryEquity theory posits that people who perceive an inequity will try to reduce inequityBehavior1. Change inputs2. Change outcomes3. Get other to change inputs or outcomes4. Quit jobCognitive1. Distort own inputs or outcomes2. Distort Other’s inputs or outcomes3. Change comparison OtherEquity Theory Underpayment Inequity PredictionsHourly WagesWorkers will decrease effortDecreases in product quality and quantityPiece Rate WagesTo compensate for underpayment, workers would produce more, but much lower qualityWork Motivation Theories: Equity TheoryEquity Theory Overpayment Inequity PredictionsHourly WagesWorkers should expend more effort (i.e., increase inputs) Piece Rate WagesWorkers should expend more effort to produce fewer, but more high quality products Work Motivation Theories: Equity TheoryWork Motivation Theories: General Expectancy Theorieseffort performance outcomeexpectancy instrumentalityVroom’s VIE theory – effort (force) is determined by:• Perceived effort-performance expectancies• Perceptions that performance will lead to certain outcomes (instrumentalities)• Valence of outcomesWork Motivation Theories: Expectancy TheoryMotivation is derived from relationships among: Valencevalue of outcomesInstrumentality performance-reward contingenciesExpectancy effort-performance contingenciesForce = Expectancy * Σ (Valences * Instrumentalities)Work Motivation Theories: Expectancy Theorystudyinggood gradeslack of social lifeexpectanciespraise from parentsgraduate schoolgood jobless friendsno funinstrumentalitiesvalenceseffort performance outcomeWork Motivation Theories: Locke’s Goal-Setting Theory•People set goals for themselves and they aremotivated to work toward these goals becauseachieving them is rewarding•Goals affect task performance by •directing attention and action, •mobilizing energy expenditure or effort, •prolonging effort overtime (persistence) and •motivating the individual to develop relevant strategies for goal attainmentPerformance is best when:Goals are specificGoals are challengingWorkers have necessary abilityRewards are clearly understood and providedManagement supports goal attainmentProvides necessary time & resourcesGoals are internalized and accepted by employeesFeedback is providedWork Motivation Theories: Locke’s Goal-Setting TheoryWork Motivation Theories: Self-Regulation Theories•Major components •Goals •Self-monitoring or self-evaluation •Role of feedback •Self-efficacy •Goal revision •Empirical tests of the theory •Evaluation of the theoryWork Motivation Theories: Job-based Theories•Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory (also referred to as Motivation-Hygiene Theory)•Job Characteristics TheorySource of motivation is primarily in the content of the jobs employees performWork Motivation Theories: Herzberg’s Two-Factor


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