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Palomar HIST 102 - History 102 Outline III - The New Era through the Cold War

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1920's: "The New Era"Cultural Challenges and Changes in the 1920sHerbert Hoover and the Great DepressionThe Changing Tide: Isolationism to WarThe Rise of FascismThe United States as Arsenal of DemocracyThe Second Red Scare: The RootsHistory 102 Outline III: The New Era through the Cold War1920's: "The New Era"Foreign Policy vs. Domestic PolicyThe defeat of Moral Diplomacy1920: Defeat of Democrats; schism of their partyElection of Warren G. Harding (Republican)VP: Calvin Coolidge (Silent Cal: "No right to strike against the public safety")Harding's Call for "Return to Normalcy"1921: Pardons Eugene V. DebsSecretary of the Treasury: Andrew MellonCommerce Secretary Herbert Hoover (Progressive) "Associationism" Scandals: Teapot Dome; Death in 1923Cultural Challenges and Changes in the 1920sThe truth of the Women's movement: Gains and lossesHarding elected with female vote (19th Amendment)Factionalism of Women's Movement: Equal Rights Amendment, "Pink Collar" jobsJohn B. Watson's "Behaviorist" psychologyMargaret Sanger, Birth Control (Diaphragm) & Attention to sex as pleasureCulture and Society: The Arts & MusicH. L. Mencken, satirist and journalistF. Scott Fitzgerlad The Great GatsbyT. S. Elliot, William Faulkner, Gertrude Stein, Enest Hemmingway"Harlem Renaissance": Nora Zeale Hurston, Langston HugesThe "Flapper": underclass vs. bohemian middle-classGrowth of American Music: Radio: Jazz, ragtime, blues, swingBenny Goodman, Duke Ellington, Louis ArmstrongGeorge Gershwin (Porgy and Bess) Kern (Showboat)Movies: Charlie Chaplin, Douglas Fairbanks, Cecil B. de Mille "Talkies" by 1927; Walt DisneyHistoriographyMary and Charles Beard: Economic SchoolOutline III p. 1 History 102Prohibition and CrimeCarrie Nation & the "Hatchet Squad"Drys vs. wetsThe "Noble Experiment": BootleggersThe rise of the MafiaThe Ugly Side of the 1920sHate Groups, Nativism, Anti-scienceThe "Red Scare"Bombs in April 1919 intercepted; attempt on MitchellJan 1, 1920: Attorney General Micthell Palmer and J. Edgar Hoover "Palmer Raids"Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti (August 23,1927)The Return of the Ku Klux KlanBirth of a Nation (1915)Race Riots in Chicago, Saint Louis, Washington (1919)Rebirth under Grand Dragon David Stephenson (And eventual downfall in 1925)Against: Blacks, but now also Catholics, Jews, "Foreigners", "metropolitan morality"Klaverns; March on Washington in 1926Successes of the Klan: Nativist Legislation1921: Emergency Immigration Act: Cannot exceed 3% immigration from 1910 census800,000 to 300,0001924: National Origins Act: None from East Asia, census of 1890Religious Fundamentalism: Protestant Revolt against "Theological Modernists"The Scopes "Monkey" Trial: John Scopes, ACLUWilliam Jennings Bryan vs. Clarence DarrowHerbert Hoover and the Great Depression1928: Alfred Smith v Herbert HooverDemocrats divided over wet and dry issue; Smith Irish Catholic city manHoover Progressive Republican without having held elective office; also famous for his relief of Eastern Europe post World War I.1929: Hoover’ s inaugural: “We in America are nearer the triumph over poverty. . .”October: Stock Market collapse Causes of the Collapse?1) Foreign Debt / World War I reparations2) Reluctance of Americans to allow debt relief to Europe3) High protective tariffs 4) Industry based on exports5) Buying on the margin; 30% of national wealth based on debtOutline III p. 2 History 1026) Disproportionate gains in the 20s of Rich and middle classHoover’s solutions: Few; afraid of governmental intervention; most policies counteredby an attempt to balance the budget; collapse of farm prices in 30-32 (cotton from 17.5 cents to 4.6 cents a bale) and 1931 European economic collapse deepens depression: Over 1,000 banks fail in three months.Hoover: Too much reliance on volunteerism: reminiscent of his faith in associations1932: The Bonus Army; Franklin Delano Roosevelt; March 4, 1933 “New Deal”March 5: The “bank Holiday”March 9: Special Session of Congress starts (the Hundred Days, to June 16)March 12: First “Fireside Chat”Takes America off gold standard; buys gold and silver to try and raise pricesVolstead Act1933: Farm Credit Administration (refinance mortgages)Home Owners Loan AssociationFederal Emergency Relief Association (FERA)Glass-Steagall Act (investment vs. commercial, bank credit, Federal Reserve) Securities Act (SEC)Reconstruction Finance Corp taken over by Jesse Jones*Agricultural Adjustment Act; when undone in 1936, rewritten “Soil Conservation Act” & the “Dust Bowl” of 1936National Industrial Recovery Act; Harold Ickles & the PWA & Blue EagleUndone in 1935 by Supreme CourtCivilian Conservation Corps & the TVA1934: Strikes Against National Recovery Act1935: Wagner Act (National Labor Relations Act); John Lewis & the CIO (sit-down)Works Progress Administration (Federal Writer’s Project)National Youth AdministrationSocial Security Law (under pressure from Dr. Francis Townsend’s $200 plan)1936 Election: Republican Shambles; Union Party Huey Long (1935), Townsend, Father Coughlin1937: The Court-Packing Debacle; attempt to balance budget and recessionThe Changing Tide: Isolationism to WarNon-participation in League of Nations, Court of International Justice (The Hague)Push for European War Debts & Protective Tariffs1928 Kellogg-Briand Pact: France: Originally, country never go to war with each otherKellogg trumps Briand: Add all countries; eventually becomes anti-war except in "National defense"FDR's "Good Neighbor" Policy1931 - 1933 Japanese incursions into Manchuria & ShanghaiThe Rise of FascismFascism in theory: Wed Nationalism and Socialism. Based on Roman fasces.Benito Mussolini: Comes to power in 1922; Proclaimed Il Ducein 1925Adolph Hitler, National Socialist (Nazi) ; Beer-Hall Putsch of 1923; entry into Parliament (Reichstag); Chancellor of Weimar Republic in 1933; death of the president in 1934, Reichsfuhrer.The Nazi Agenda; Police-State; German "Re-Unification"America: Recognition of Soviet Union in November of 19331934-1937: The Nye Commission & Charles Beard1935: Germany receives Saar basin (near France/Belgium); coalItaly invades EthiopiaOutline III p. 3 History 102American Neutrality Pact (supposedly only for 6 months)1936: Germany invades the RhinelandFrancisco Franco's uprising in Spain1937: Japan attacks in Peking; the "China Incident""Anti-Comintern Pact"American Neutrality "cash and Carry"Japan sinks the Panay1938: Forced unification of Austria with Germany

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