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American Society in the Industrial Age

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American Society in the Industrial AgeAfrican Americans Post ReconstructionNative Americans“New” ImmigrationPowerPoint PresentationOnce They ArrivedEllis Island “The Gateway to America”Slide 8Pass or Fail? In or Out?Slide 10Slide 11Angel IslandGrowth of citiesEthnic NeighborhoodsWhat did they do?SkyscrapersSlide 17Slide 18Urban LifeSlide 20Slide 21TENEMENT LIFEDumbbell TenementAerial ViewSlide 25Slide 26Slide 27Slide 28Nativist ReactionCity ImprovementsLabor ProblemsCHILD LABORSlide 33Slide 34Slide 35Slide 36Slide 37Slide 38Slide 39Slide 40Working WomenTriangle Shirtwaist Factory FireUpward MobilityLabor MovementsKnights of LaborEnd of Knights of LaborAmerican Federation of Labor (AFL) - 1886Religious Answers to the PoorSocial GospelReformersSlide 51American Society in the Industrial AgeAfrican Americans Post Reconstruction•Army removed, Southern states govern to oppress African-Americans–Hall v. DeCuir (1877)–Civil Rights Cases (1883)–Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)•“Separate but equal”–Booker T. Washington•Tuskegee Institute•Atlanta Compromise–Voting restrictions•Poll taxes, Literacy tests, Grandfather clausesNative Americans•Plains Indians and the Buffalo•Destruction of the Buffalo•Pacification of native Americans –Concentration Strategy–Reservations–Dawes Severalty Act (1887)•Helen Hunt Jackson – A Century of Dishonor (1881)•Wounded Knee (1890)–Ghost Dance“New” Immigration•Between 1866-1915 about 25 million immigrated to the US–Steam liner - passage safer, quicker and cheaper–Industrialization = opportunity–Farming market in Europe crashed•Mainly from Southern & Eastern Europe–Italy, Croatia, Poland, Russia–Catholic, JewsVoyage to AmericaOnce They Arrived•Ellis Island (1892)–Processed 12 million people in 60 years•Pass the test–Immigrants were inspected and interviewed•Criminals or mentally deficient people were generally the ones to go•Not many rejected – maybe one in fifty•Often names were butchered by over-worked customs officials and family names lost.Ellis Island“The Gateway to America”Pass or Fail? In or Out?Angel Island•Located in San Francisco, CA–The Ellis Island of the West–Predominantly Chinese emigrantsGrowth of cities•Cities become overcrowded–Sanitation issues•sewers couldn’t keep up •Garbage couldn’t be picked up fast enough•City waterways became polluted from sewage–Tuberculosis became common–Housing•Overcrowded•No indoor sanitation, so people relieved themselves in outhouses in court yards–The smell was unbearable•Jacob Riis – Wrote How the Other Half Lives–Crime•Conditions led to violence•Street gangs formed from juvenile delinquentsEthnic Neighborhoods•People wanted to be by people who…–They knew–Spoke the language–Had a similar culture–Eases homesickness•Observers noted these neighborhoods had a foreign appearanceRussian Jewish Neighborhood - NYCWhat did they do?•Cities were booming•Second industrial revolution was in full swing.–Factory work was readily available for unskilled–Merchants in ethnic neighborhoods–Few farmers–They built American citiesSkyscrapers•Growth of cities•Steel construction possible•Labor sourceTerminal Tower - Cleveland - 1926Empire State Bldg - NYC - 1931Urban LifeTENEMENT LIFEDumbbell TenementAerial ViewNativist Reaction•Nativists did not appreciate the influx of immigrants–Cities are already too crowded–Feared low wage workers–Radicalism in the wake of the Haymarket bombing –Congress passed a literacy test in 1897 for immigrants upon arrival •vetoed by President ClevelandCity Improvements•Once the connection was made between filth and disease efforts were made to clean things up•Streets were paved•Streetlights•Trolleys improved public transport in the late 1800s–These streetcars made it easier for the area of the city to increase. More folks could live in the suburbs•Suspension bridges increased traffic flows to the suburbs as well–Brooklyn Bridge (1883) – connected Manhattan to BrooklynLabor Problems•Long Work Days •Low pay•Poor working conditions•Industrial accidents•Dissatisfaction with work – Monotony•No benefits/sick leave/vacation •Child LaborCHILD LABORWorking Women•Worked more and more outside the home•Textile mills employed a large % of women•Paid lower wages than menTriangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire•Women working in garment factory–Mostly Jewish/Italian•Fire started and trapped women on 9th floor as they were notified too late.•Doors to stairwells/exits locked•146 women died•Led to improved safety standards•Women’s UnionUpward Mobility•American Dream - believed society offered opportunity–White collar jobs offered this–Public Education system–Work Ethic•Rags to riches stories were rare •Horatio AlgerLabor Movements•Labor begins to organize to combat industrialists–Boycotts–Picketing–Strikes•Great Railroad Strike (1877)•Haymarket Square (1886)•Homestead Steel Strike (1892)•Pullman Strike (1894)•Coal Strike (1902)Knights of Labor•Led By: Terence Powderly•Open to unskilled workers & artisans•Open to minorities, women, immigrants•What did they want?–Eight-hour workdayEight-hour workday–Workers’ cooperatives.Workers’ cooperatives.–Worker-owned factories.Worker-owned factories.–Abolition of child and prison labor.Abolition of child and prison labor.–Increased circulation of greenbacks.Increased circulation of greenbacks.–Equal pay for men and women.Equal pay for men and women.–Safety codes in the workplace.Safety codes in the workplace.–Prohibition of contract foreign labor.Prohibition of contract foreign labor.End of Knights of Labor•Haymarket Square•unions unions + violence + violence + strikes + socialists + strikes + socialists + immigrants immigrants = anarchistsanarchists•Americans turned Americans turned against labor as a against labor as a resultresultAmerican Federation of Labor (AFL) - 1886•Led by: Samuel Gompers•Catered to the skilled worker.•Understood workers would remain working class–Promoted pride in being a worker•Pushed for 8 hour days•Worker’s safety laws •Maintained a national strike fund.•Mediated disputes between management and labor.Religious Answers to the Poor•Urban religious leaders –Asked what caused the problems with slums–Henry Ward Beecher – liquor and tobacco–Catholics aided poor


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