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CUNY SCR 270 - Identifying and Reporting Child Abuse and Maltreatment/Neglect

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Slide 1Slide 2LEGAL DEFINITIONSSlide 4National Incidence StudyUniversity of Rochester StudySlide 7Child Protective Services Act of 1973Reports RegisteredRole of Mandated ReporterReasonable CauseSlide 12Consequences for Failure to ReportSlide 14Legal FrameworkMandated Reporter RecordsConsider the ChildAbuseRecognizing Child Abuse and NeglectSlide 20Slide 21Maltreatment/NeglectTypes of NeglectSlide 24NeglectSlide 26Neglected Children Author unknown (but had to be a Nursing student!)Slide 28Bruising AreasCommon IndicatorsHandprint InjuryLooped Cord InjurySteam Iron InjuryEmotional AbuseSexual AbuseConsider the possibility of sexual abuse if the parent:Slide 38Slide 39Slide 40If you suspect abuse:If a Child Tells You About Abuse or NeglectTalking with ChildrenSlide 44Appropriate responseSlide 46Slide 47Slide 48Slide 49Who can be Reported?Reasonable Cause to SuspectImminent DangerMake the callSlide 54Prepare for the CallSlide 56Follow up the CallNew York State Child Protective Services SystemLocal District ResponseSHAKEN BABY SYNDROMENormal Brain CTCT : “Shake-n-Bake” (A) This CT scan of the brain, obtained immediately following a shaking event, shows significant cerebral edema. Due to brain swelling, the gray and white matter of the brain are unable to be differentiated. The reddened areas signify fresh blood between the brain hemispheres. (B) Shows the same brain, scanned 3 months after the shaking event. The dark area shows areas of brain loss. The child did not survive.Munchausen's Syndrome by ProxySIDS versus SuffocationMandated Reporter Training:Identifying and Reporting Child Abuse and Maltreatment/NeglectLEGAL DEFINITIONSAn abused child is one who is less than 18 years of age and whose parent or other person legally responsible for his care : • - inflicts or allows to be inflicted serious physical injury by other than accidental means • - creates or allows to be created a substantial risk of such injury • - commits or allows to be committed a sex offense against such childNational Incidence StudyThe reasons for this are:•Confusion or misunderstanding about reporting laws and procedures•Lack of knowledge or awareness of warning signs/cluesNational study conducted in the 1980s: Found professionals report only half the incidents they knew about.University of Rochester Study•Not clear about abuse/neglect as defined in State Law•Often influenced by their professional beliefs, values, and experiencesMandated Reporters disclosed they were:Child Protective Services Act of 1973MandatedReporterLocal Child Protective ServicesState Central Register (1973)Reports Registered2005Non-Mandated ReporterMandated ReporterRole of Mandated ReporterTo report suspected incidents of child abuse or maltreatment/neglect while acting in their professional capacity.Reasonable CauseThe diagnosis of child abuse or maltreatment should be made when the level of suspicion is reasonably sufficient to entertain such a possibility. Special attention should be paid to:•injuries that are unexplained or are inconsistent with the parent’s/caretaker’s explanation •developmental stage of the child.Reasonable Cause• The law does not require absolute certainty. It does require reasonable cause to suspect abuse or maltreatment. • You only need to have "reasonable cause to believe" that a child is being abused or neglected for you to make a report-you don't need proof. If you think a child is being hurt in any way, you have a legal (if you are functioning in a professional capacity) and moral responsibility to report it. You can report suspected abuse even if the child doesn't tell you about it. You may observe signs of abuse/neglect or someone may verbalize their experiences to you.• Any person or institution making a report of suspected child abuse or maltreatment in good faith has immunity from civil or criminal liability which might otherwise be incurred. The good faith of any person required to report shall be presumed.Consequences for Failure to Report•Criminal Sanction: It is Class A misdemeanor for a mandated reporter to willfully fail to report a case of suspected child abuse or maltreatment. •Civil Sanction: A mandated reporter who knowingly and willfully fails to make a report of suspected child abuse or maltreatment is civilly liable for damages caused by such failure.Legal Framework•Immunity•Confidentiality•PenaltiesMandated Reporter Records•Requires mandated reporters to provide records regarding a mandated report necessary for a CPS investigation, irrespective of HIPPA proscriptions or any other privilege.•SSL §415Consider the Child•Must be less than 18 years of age•What has happened?•Who is responsible?Abuse•Inflicts or allows to be inflicted injury•Creates or allows to becreated substantial riskof physical injury•Commits or allows to becommitted a sex offenseRecognizing Child Abuse and Neglect Physical Abuse •Signs of Physical Abuse –Bruises, welts on face, neck, chest, back –Injuries in the shape of an object-belt, cord, iron –Unexplained burns on palms, soles, back –Fractures that do not fit story of injury –Delay in seeking medical help –Extremes in child's behavior-very aggressive or withdrawn and shy (unlike the child's typical behavior) –Afraid to go home –Frightened of parents/caregivers –Fearful of other adultsMaltreatment/Neglect•A child whose physical, mental, or emotional condition has been impaired or is at imminent danger of becoming impaired•A parent’s or custodian’s failure to provide a minimum degree of careTypes of Neglect•Fails to provide:–adequate food, clothing, shelter, education, and medical care–proper supervisionOR•Inflicts/allows to be inflicted harm, including the infliction of excessive corporal punishment•Misuses alcohol or other drugs •Abandonment•A neglected child is one who is less than 18 years of age whose physical, mental or emotional condition has been impaired or is in danger of becoming impaired due to the parents': • - failure to provide adequate food, clothing, shelter, medical care or education • - failure to provide proper supervision or guardianship • - infliction of excessive corporal punishment • - abandonment of the childNeglectSigns of Neglect •Poor hygiene, body odor •Inappropriately dressed for weather •Needs medical or dental care •Left alone, unsupervised, for long periods of time (depending on child's age) •Failure to thrive,


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