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A Distributed Middleware Framework and Architecture for Enabling Durable Peer- to-Peer Grids.

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NaradaBrokering: A Distributed Middleware Framework and Architecture for Enabling Durable Peer-to-Peer Grids. Shrideep Pallickara and Geoffrey Fox Community Grid Labs, Indiana University, 501 N. Morton St, Suite 224 Bloomington, IN-47404. USA. {spallick, gcf}@indiana.edu Abstract. A Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Grid would comprise services that include those of Grids and P2P networks and naturally support environments that have features of both limiting cases. Such a P2P grid integrates the evolving ideas of computational grids, distributed objects, web services, P2P networks and message oriented middleware. In this paper we investigate the architecture, comprising a distributed brokering system that will support such a hybrid environment. Access to services can then be mediated either by the middleware or alternatively by direct P2P interactions between machines. 1.0 Introduction The Grid [1-4] has made dramatic progress recently with impressive technology and several large important applications initiated in high-energy physics [5,6], earth science [7,8] and other areas [9,10]. At the same time, there have been equally impressive advances in broadly deployed Internet technology. We can cite the dramatic growth in the use of XML, the “disruptive” impact of peer-to-peer (P2P) approaches [11] that have resulted in a slew of powerful applications, and the more orderly, but still widespread adoption, of a universal Web Service approach to Web based applications [12,13]. There are no crisp definitions of Grids and P2P Networks that allow us to unambiguously discuss their differences and similarities and what it means to integrate them. However these two concepts conjure up stereotype images that can be compared. Taking “extreme” cases, Grids are exemplified by the infrastructure used to allow seamless access to supercomputers and their datasets. P2P technology facilitates sophisticated resource sharing environments between “consenting” peers over the “edges” of the Internet, enabling ad hoc communities of low-end clients to advertise and access resources on communal computers. Each of these examples offers services but they differ in their functionality and style of implementation. The P2P example could involve services to set-up and join peer groups, browse and access files on a peer, or possibly to advertise one’s interest in a particular file. The “classic” grid could support job submittal and status services and access to sophisticated data management systems.Grids typically have structured robust security services while P2P networks can exhibit more intuitive trust mechanisms reminiscent of the “real world”. Grids typically offer robust services that scale well in pre-existing hierarchically arranged organizations. P2P networks are often used when a best effort service is needed in a dynamic poorly structured community. If one needs a particular “hot digital recording”, it is not necessary to locate all sources of this, a P2P network needs to search enough plausible resources to ensure that success is statistically guaranteed. On the other hand, a 3D simulation of the universe might need to be carefully scheduled and submitted in a guaranteed fashion to one of the handful of available supercomputers that can support it. There are several attractive features in the P2P model, which motivate the development of hybrid systems. Deployment of P2P systems is entirely user driven, obviating the need for any dedicated management of these systems. Resource discovery and management is an integral part of P2P computing with peers exposing the resources that they are willing to share and the system (sometimes) replicating these resources based on demand. Grids might host different persistent services and they must be able to discover these services and the interfaces they support. Peers can form groups with the fluid group memberships and are thus very relevant for collaboration [14, 15]. This is an area that has been addressed for the Grid in Ref [16] and also in a seminal paper by Foster and collaborators [17] addressing broad support for communities. A P2P Grid would comprise services that include those of Grids and P2P networks while naturally supporting environments that have features of both limiting cases. We can discuss two examples where such a model is naturally applied. In the High Energy Physics data analysis (e-Science [18]) problem discussed in [19], the initial steps are dominated by the systematic analysis of the accelerator data to produce summary events roughly at the level of sets of particles. This Grid-like step is followed by “physics analysis”, which can involve many different studies and much debate between involved physicists regarding the appropriate methods to study the data. Here we see some Grid and some P2P features. As a second example, consider the way one uses the Internet to access information – either news items or multimedia entertainment. Perhaps the large sites like Yahoo, CNN and future digital movie distribution centers have Grid like organization. There are well-defined central repositories and high performance delivery mechanisms involving caching to support access. Security is likely to be strict for premium channels. This structured information is augmented by the P2P mechanisms popularized by Napster with communities sharing MP3 and other treasures in a less organized and controlled fashion. These simple examples suggest that whether for science or commodity communities, information systems should support both Grid and P2P capabilities [20,21]. The proposed P2P grid, which integrates the evolving ideas of computational grids, distributed objects, web services, P2P networks and message oriented middleware, comprises resources such as relatively static clients, high-end resources and a dynamic collection of multiple P2P subsystems. We investigate the architecture, comprising a distributed brokering system that will support such a hybrid environment. Services can be hosted on such a P2P grid with peer groups managed locally and arranged into a global system supported by core servers. Access to services can then be mediated either by the “broker middleware” or alternatively bydirect P2P interactions between machines “on the edge”. The relative performance of each approach (which could reflect computer/network cycles as well as the existence of firewalls) would be used in deciding on the implementation to use.


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